Rabu, 17 April 2013

The Leadership (Versi Ikhwan Lutfi)

            Leadership. What is that? Every people often say about leadership, but do we know about leadership? The first, I want to tell you about the definition. The word leadership is taken from the word “lead” which has four manners, they are loyalists, educated, be an adviser, and discipline. So, all of the leader must have that manners.
            Loyalty means, the leader must have loyalty and power to organize something that he lead. Educated means that people are called leader must have a power to give good education. Next, be an adviser means that the leader can give us suggestion or a good idea for our problem. Finally, a leader must be a good example for the discipline itself.  
            Based on Gardner (psychologist) defines the leadership as “The process of persuasion or example by an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader or shared by the leader and his or her followers. For example, when we want to be a president of BEM, we must have manner to give persuasion for other students university, probably, something like a twitter account that we use to inform our programs.
            Same as Gardner, George writes that a leader is ability to bring people together to achieve sustainable results over time. “They not only inspire those around them, they bring people together around a shared purpose and a common set of values and motivate them to create value for everyone involved.” Same example too, when you want to be a president of BEM, your twitter account must be a good persuation and give motivation from another student university to bring them together  to take a shared purpose.
            Next, Conger writes that leaders are “Individuals who establish direction for a working group of individuals, who gain commitment from these group members to this direction, and who then motivate these members to achieve the direction’s outcomes.
            In psychology, a new perspective about leadership was born, that’s a leadership psychology.  Leadership psychology is an integrates the study and practice of leadership and organizational systems with the fundamentals of human psychology to create a 21st Century approach to leadership. This approach teaches leaders the skills and perspectives necessary to meet the local and global challenges of a networked world. Leadership psychology emphasizes the need to understand individual and group behaviors as a complex system in order to achieve positive and long lasting change. Therefore, leadership is defined as the art of influencing followers to achieve success by identifying joint goals, finding best-fit roles in teams, collaborating constructively and dynamically, and adapting to change within their environments.
            Although people may recognize the need for change, it is often difficult to move people, and therefore organizations and institutions, out of familiar behaviors, models and beliefs. This demands an adaptive approach to leadership. For example, one of  psychology academy in USA has created the first Leadership Psychology doctoral program in the U.S. to understand leadership, followership, and to deploy the best research and practice to address challenges in for profit, non-profit, higher education, healthcare, and government domains. I think It’s very interesting think.
            What about in Islam theory? Imam Ghazali says that leadership is a how to be a great influence, like maqamuka fii qulub al-nas. Next, we know that Rasulullah saw is a great leader that give us a great influence in Islam, and specially in our life. Rasullah saw have a special characteristic to be a leader. There are siddiq, fathonah, amanah, wa tabligh. 

            Siddiq means that the leader is a honest people and always try to be a right people, in ayat (QS. Al Qalam: 4)
4. dan Sesungguhnya kamu benar-benar berbudi pekerti yang agung.

            Fathonah means that the leader is a smart people and have a high intellectual, in ayat (Al Baqarah: 269)
269. Allah menganugerahkan Al Hikmah (kefahaman yang dalam tentang Al Quran dan As Sunnah) kepada siapa yang dikehendaki-Nya. dan Barangsiapa yang dianugerahi hikmah, ia benar-benar telah dianugerahi karunia yang banyak. dan hanya orang-orang yang berakallah yang dapat mengambil pelajaran (dari firman Allah).

             Amanah means that the leader is trust men, in ayat (QS. Al Ahzab: 21)
21. Sesungguhnya telah ada pada (diri) Rasulullah itu suri teladan yang baik bagimu (yaitu) bagi orang yang mengharap (rahmat) Allah dan (kedatangan) hari kiamat dan Dia banyak menyebut Allah.

            Finally the leader must be Tabligh, when leader always try to give information that he knows, in ayat (Asyu ara’: 84)
84. dan Jadikanlah aku buah tutur yang baik bagi orang-orang (yang datang) Kemudian,

            In Islam, there are many ways to say Leadership, there are  khalifah, imamah, ra’in and ulil amri, and they have a specific characteristic too. And you know, the ayats that want to tell about leadership are:
QS. Al Baqarah: 30
30. Ingatlah ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada Para Malaikat: "Sesungguhnya aku hendak
menjadikan (khalifah) di bumi itu orang yang akan membuat kerusakan padanya dan
menjadikan seorang khalifah di muka bumi." mereka berkata: "Mengapa Engkau hendak
menumpahkan darah, Padahal Kami Senantiasa bertasbih dengan memuji Engkau dan mensucikan
Engkau?" Tuhan berfirman: "Sesungguhnya aku mengetahui apa yang tidak kamu ketahui."
QS. At Taubah: 28
128. Sungguh telah datang kepadamu seorang Rasul dari kaummu sendiri, berat terasa olehnya
penderitaanmu, sangat menginginkan (keimanan dan keselamatan) bagimu, Amat belas kasihan
lagi Penyayang terhadap orang-orang mukmin.
Or in a fenomenal  hadist from Imam Bukhari Muslim:
Setiap kamu adalah pemimpin, dan harus bertanggung jawab atas rakyat yang dipimpinnya; seorang imam (kepala Negara) adalah pemimpin dan harus bertanggung jawab atas rakyat yang dipimpinnya. (HR. Bukhari dari sahabat Ibn Umar).
            And finally we know that every person from us is a leader, so we must be a good leader (specially to ourself), because when you want to be a leader from another person, we must be a good leader from ourself before. It’s like how to ménage our psychologys, and It’s will be back again in our department, department of psychologys. Say Alhamdulillah, we were in psychology.


From the picture, we can see that how the way to be a good leader. Maybe, one of them is a leader from this community, and to built the team he did not care about the dirtiness, etc. Because in his mind, giving a good persuasion and motivation by doing.

            Beinecke, R.H. 2009. Introduction: Leadershipfor Wicked Problems. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 14(1) 1-17
            dailamifirdaus.net Diakses pada hari Selasa, 16 April 2013
            en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_psychology Diakses pada hari Selasa, 16 April 2013
            Gardner, J.W. (1990). On Leadership. New York: The Free Press
            suryadiharyanto2003.blogspot.com/2012/06/kepemimpinan-dalam-psikologi-sosial Diakses pada hari Selasa, 16 April 2013


I think that is all :)
Hatur syukron nggeh :)
Sorry kalau ada salah, terutama soal gramatikalx :D

Kulo, Ikhwan Lutfi..


Selasa, 16 April 2013

Tugas UTS Bahasa Inggris - Rona Avissina

Name                : Rona Avissina
Nim                  : 11410131
Class                : Psychology B
  1. About Leadership

  1. Al-Qur’an Surat Al- Anaam :165

And it is He who has made you successors upon the earth and has raised some of you above others in degrees [of rank] that He may try you through what He has given you. Indeed, your Lord is swift in penalty; but indeed, He is Forgiving and Merciful.
  1. The meaning that ayat in psychology :
“And (remember) when his Lord tested Ibrahim with a few sentences (commands and prohibitions), then he fulfilled. Allah says: "Behold, I will make you a leader for all people". He said: "(And please, also) from my offspring". Allah says: "Promise Me (This) is not about abnormal people".”

There are several definitions of leadership that each other can be complementary.
1. According to Boring, Langeveld, and Weld:
Leadership is a relationship and individuals to form a group in order to be able to accomplish some purpose.
2. According to George R. Terry:
Leadership is the activity of influencing people to voluntarily willing toward common goals a reality.
3. According to H. Goidhamer and E. A. Shils
Leadership is the act of behavior that can influence the behavior of other people they lead.
4. According Ordeway Tead
Leadership is the activity of influencing people to work together toward the goals they want conformity.
5. According to John Petivner
Leadership is the art of coordinating and directing individuals or groups to achieve a desired goal.
Trait Theory
This theory started from the premise that the success of a leader is determined by the properties, temperament or traits possessed by the leader. The properties of a physical nature and psikoplagis. On the basis of the reasoning of the opinion that to be a successful leader is determined by personal ability, which meant the quality of a person with a different nature or temperament traits in it. Therefore the experts seek to elaborate further the quality of a leader is successful in carrying out the tasks of leadership and then the results are formulated into the common traits of a leader. The effort eventually spawned and grown into leadership theory or theory of leadership traits (Miftah Thoha, Organizational Behaviour, King Grafindo PT Persada, 1983, p 278)
Stogdill make classification a necessary trait in a person's head as follows:

v  Capacity: intelligence, alertness, verbal facility, originality, judgment)
v  Achievement: scholarship, knowledge, athletic achievement
v  Responsibility: dependability, initiative, persistence, aggressiveness, self-confidence, desire to excel
v  Participation: activity, sociability, cooperation, adaptability, humor
v  Status: socioeconomic position, popularity

Classification based on the way the leader or the approach taken by the leader, namely:
v  The Authoritarian Leadership
Authoritarian leaders define wisdom of the group, he himself makes the most of the planning, he himself fully determine the group's activities, dictate the pattern of activities among members and member relationships, making decisions on reward and punishment to members. Therefore the fate of each individual in the group is in the hands of the leader.
v  Democratic leadership
Democratic leaders try to show that the maximum involvement and participation of each member in the group activities and in setting group goals. He tried to divide the responsibilities of its members. He tried, encourage and strengthen the relationship between individuals throughout the group. He also tried to reduce tensions and conflicts in the group.
v  Liberal leadership
Passive leader, did not participate in group activities. He is outside the group, but the leader does not lead to release its members. Sir William Martin Conway held a leadership classification based on social roles are sung into three kinds, namely:
Crowd Compeller
He is the kind of leadership exercised by the person who gets the call duty to carry it out.
b. Crowd Representative
Leadership exercised temporary, ie during the period of his appointment to the post as head of the group. And that's the group that chose him as its leader.
c. Crowd Exponent
4.     This kind of leader at the right time and needed to move the masses so intense and pointed it at the intended target goal anyway. Because leaders can guess what that feels and that became their doubts, then can move up to the expectations he really wants.
That in surah Al Baqarah verse 124 suggests that leadership and example should be based on faith and devotion, knowledge and success in various examinations. Therefore, leadership can not be awarded by God to those who do wrong, the prevailing mayhem.
In this letter describes one difference that characterizes Islamic view of leadership to the views of others. Islam considers that leadership is not just a social contract, which gave birth to the promise of leaders led to serve in accordance with the agreement, as well as the observance of which led to the leader, but also have established harmonious relationship between the lead authorized by God. Janjin the form of leadership to run in accordance with the values ​​that mandated him.
5.      (I promised not to get the people who do wrong), shows that the acquisition of more leadership is grace, not human effort. That is why the verse states "I promised not to get the people who do wrong", in the sense that they are actively looking for a position, but rather the "promise" that a doer (subject). The promise is not met or get them.
Interpretation of Surah Al Baqarah verse 124 when connected with the Traits theory assumed that leadership depends on the character of its leaders. The properties owned by, among others, personality, physical excellence, and social skills.
 (I promised not to get the people who do wrong). In this verse clearly explained that the leadership in Islam is more to the grace not to human efforts. And maybe not an unjust God chose as a leader. So it is in line with theories that assume leadership traits depends on the character of the leader. Character must be good leaders that include social aspects of personality and Traffic. Personality is owned by a leader who is certainly not unjust as stated in Surah Al Baqarah ayat 124.

6.     Reference
Desmita,Dra.2011:Psikologi Perkembangan Pesrta Didik.PT.Remaja Rosdakarya.Bandung.

Leadership_Firda Amalia_11410127

Firda Amalia (11410127)

Ø  Al-Qur’an
Q.S. Al Baqarah 124
And remember when his Lord tried Abraham with (His) commands, and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind. (Abraham) said: And of my offspring (will there be leaders) ? He said: My covenant includeth not wrong-doers.
Q.S. Al An’am ayat 165
He it is Who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by (the test of) that which He hath given you. Lo! Thy Lord is swift in prosecution, and Lo! He verily is Forgiving, Merciful.

Q.S. An Naml ayat 62
Is not He (best) Who answereth the wronged one when he crieth unto Him and removeth the evil, and hath made you viceroys of the earth ? Is there any God beside Allah ? Little do they reflect!
Ø  Definition according to psychology
According to Fulan (2000, hal. 3) said that“leadership is a process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induce the group to pursue objectives shared by the leaders and his or her followers”.
In the other references mention that leadership is a process by wich a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse’s (2007), definition leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leaders are those who most influence the behavior and beliefs of the group. He was the one who initiated the action, give orders, make decisions, act as a role model, and being at the forefront of the group's activities.

Ø  Definition according to al-qur’an
Leadership in the concept of the Qur'an mentioned the term of the Imamah”, the leader in terms of imam”. Al-Qur'an linking leadership with guidance and giving instructions to the truth. A leader should not do injustice, and never do injustice in all levels of tyranny: the tyranny of the scientific and deeds, and injustice in the decision-making applications.
A leader must know the state of his people, to feel their pain directly. A leader should exceed his people in all things: science and practice, devotion and worship, courage and virtue, nature and behavior, and others.
Leaders in Islam has several characteristics, including:
1.        The intention is sincere
2.        Man
3.        Not ask job
4.        Adhering to the laws of God and consistent
5.        Decide the case with fair
6.        Always there when needed
7.        Advise people
8.        Do not accept gifts
9.        Looking for a good leader
10.    Gentle
11.    No doubt the people
12.    Open to accept ideas and criticism
Ø  Theory of Psychology about leadership.

Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill levels. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types:

1.      Great Man Theories
assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent, that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership.
2.      Trait Theories
Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.

3.      Contingency Theories

Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.

4.      Situational Theories

Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. For example, in a situation where the leader is the most knowledgeable and experienced member of a group, an authoritarian style might be most appropriate. In other instances where group members are skilled experts, a democratic style would be more effective.

5.      Behavioral Theories

Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.

6.      Participative Theories

Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.

7.      Management Theories

Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. Learn more about theories of transactional leadership

8.      Relationship Theories

Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards.

Ø  The Components of Transformational Leadership
Bass also suggested that there were four different components of transformational leadership.
1.      Intellectual Stimulation
Transformational leaders not only challenge the status quo, they also encourage creativity among followers. The leader encourages followers to explore new ways of doing things and new opportunities to learn
2.      Individualized Consideration
Transformational leadership also involves offering support and encouragement to individual followers. In order to foster supportive relationships, transformational leaders keep lines of communication open so that followers feel free to share ideas and so that leaders can offer direct recognition of each followers unique contributions.
3.      Inspirational Motivation
Transformational leaders have a clear vision that they are able to articulate to followers. These leaders are also able to help followers experience the same passion and motivation to fulfill these goals.
4.      Idealized Influence
The transformational leader serves as a role model for followers. Because followers trust and respect the leader, they emulate this individual and internalize his or her ideals.
Ø  Type of leader
1.      Transactional leaders
Are task-oriented and focus on getting group members to achieve goals (jung and avolio 1999). These type of leaders reward accomplishing routine goals but do not especially inspire performance beyond the routine.
2.      Transformational leaders
These leaders encourage others to go beyond the routine by building a different type of organization that focuses on future possibilities (kanter 1983). Trans formational leaders use enthusiasm and optimism to inspire others.

Ø  Analyze and comment.
From the above description can be analyzed that the leadership in the Qur'an and psychology have been widely described. From the definition of leadership and characteristics to theories of leadership. In the Qur'an, the leader called the imam or khalifah, and in the Qur'an also described many of the traits of a leader, as men are preferred to be a leader than women, and many others .
Meanwhile, in the sense psychology, leaders are more likely to be those who most influence the behavior and beliefs of a group. Which generally carry two leaders, to direct and organize the activities of the group to achieve a goal or complete a task (Task Leadership) and maintain the social and emotional well-being of the members of the group (social leadership). Leadership in the view of psychology and the Qur'an, both have a very important role to the group. As his business as most people have an influence in the group.

Ø  Reality

Ir. Soekarno is first president in Indonesia. He is one example of a leader who has a major influence on the country of Indonesia. The hard work and all the efforts to make our country free from colonialism and for independence.

Joko widodo or Jokowi is known as the Governor of Jakarta. He is a leader who has a great influence on society jakarta. With his efforts he was trying to change for the better Jakarta. His efforts as a leader is to provide healthy jakarta cards, and trying to deal with flooding that always befall the city of Jakarta.

Stolley, Kathy S. 2005. The Basics Of Sociology. United States of amirica: Greenwood Press
Taylor, Shelley dkk. 2009. Psikologi Sosial. Jakarta: Kencana