Senin, 15 April 2013

Corruption By: Mufida. S (09410166)


By: Mufida. S (09410166)

1. Verses of the Qur'an about Corruption (Q.S Al-Anfal Ayat 27)
يَاأَيُّهَاالَّذِينَآمَنُواْلاَ تَخُونُواْاللّهَوَالرَّسُولَوَتَخُونُواْأَمَانَاتِكُمْوَأَنتُمْتَعْلَمُونَ

2. Definition of Corruption
The meaning of Surah Al-Anfal Ayat 27
O you who have believed, do not betray Allah and the Messenger or betray your trusts while you know [the consequence].
Definition of Corruption
Etymologically, the word comes from the Latin corruption is corruption or corruptus. Furthermore, the corruption that was derived from the word corrumpere, which is a Latin word which older. From the Latin that was later dropped to European languages ​​such as English, namely corruption, corrupt. In French, namely corruption, while in Dutch called corruptie. Of the Dutch language that is likely to have been absorbed into the Indonesian language, namely corruption.
The word corruptio or corruptus which means damage or dilapidation is initially using the public's understanding comes from the Greek language meaning that corruption is not good deeds, fraudulent, venal, immoral, deviate from holiness.
Literally, the notion of corruption can mean:
a. Crime, decay, venal, immoral, immorality and dishonesty.
b.Bad actions such as wiping money, bribes receipts, and so on.
According to Transparency International defines corruption as the abuse of power and trust deeds public for personal gain. In this definition, there are three elements, namely:
a. Abuse of power.
b. Entrusted power (either in the public or private sector).
c. Personal gain (in this context, is also intended to be a private family or friends).
In Act No. 31 of 1999 defines corruption in Articles 2 and 3, namely:
  1. Any person who acts unlawfully enrich themselves or someone else or a corporation that could hurt state finances or economy (Article 2, paragraph 1).
  2. Any person who for the purpose of enriching himself or another person or a corporation, abusing authority, opportunity or means available to him because of the position or a position that could hurt state finances or economy of the state (Article 3).
Definitions and Types of Corruption Perspective of Islamic Law
Islam termed corruption in some etymology appropriate types or forms of corruption, including:
a.Risywah, namely bribery or illegal fees by agreement of both parties.
b. Al-Ghasbu, ie when the illegal fees mentioned above coercive. Like if seseoarang not give a sum of money, then it will be complicated affairs. It can also be referred to as extortion (al-maksu).
c.Mark-up or mark-funds in various projects called deception (al-ghurur).
d.Falsification of data referred to by al-khiyanah.
e.Embezzlement of state funds can be categorized as al-ghulul.
First, risywah according to language is something that can deliver that goal in any way that goal can be achieved. The definition is taken from the word meaningful rosya bucket strap used to strap a bucket from the well. While the ar-raasyi is the one who gives something to both parties to support the malicious intent of his actions. Then ar-roisyi is mediator or liaison between the bribe giver and the bribe recipients, while recipients of bribes referred to as al-murtasyi.
According to Dr. Yusuf Qaradawi define risywah ie something given to a person who has the power or position (any) to succeed its case by beating his opponents in accordance with what is desired or to give him an opportunity (such as tender) or get rid of his opponents.
From the definitions described above, that risywah is part of corruption relating to bribery to someone who has the power or authority in order to facilitate the goal to be achieved or that the purpose of the bribe. One part of this is a form of corruption that has damaged the structure of moral and justice in every line of public life. Due to bribery, justice in the legal process can not be achieved or may affect the decision of a judge with a nominal money could shake the faith of a law enforcement. Bribery even known by the public as an act of "bribe" is common, for example in the case of motorcyclists who often exposed to a speeding ticket from traffic police officers. So with a few bills, a trial has been completed. This is what indicates that risywah had penetrated in various community structures.
Second, al-ghulul is the act of embezzling state coffers or the treasury or in the historical literature of Islam call to steal the spoils of war or in part to conceal owned before presenting it to the division. therefore, the act of including the al-ghulul categories are:
a. Stealing ghanimah (spoils of war).
b. Darken the state treasury.
c. Skimming charity.
Third, al-maksu is the act of levying take what is not right and give to that is not right anyway. This action is identified to the extortion that usually occurs when someone will take care of something and then charged a fee by the offender without compliance with the tax collector of the person who picked it. As we mentioned earlier, that if the levy is not met by the victim, then the people's business will be compounded by the perpetrators of the tax collector. Inilahyang then called al-maksu.
3. Corruption in Theory Psychology
Sigmund Freud was the founder of Psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the importance of childhood experiences. In essence, childhood holds a decisive role in shaping the personality and human behavior as adults later.
There are five stages of personality development in Psychoanalysis. According to Freud, human personality through the stages in the development of oral, anal, Phallis, latent, and genital.
a. Oral stage, at this stage of human merely using his mouth to feel pleasure. Babies always put into his mouth every object in his hand. This stage takes place in 0-3 years.
b. Anal stage, This is stage when children get pleasure when pulled something out of his anus. Children love the look dung heap. At this stage the child can linger in the toilet.
c. Phallis stage, Phase Phallis took place at the age of 8-10 years. Children get pleasure with sex play.
d. Latent stage, stages forgetting Children gain pleasure because it was entering school age. Child has friends and new games.
e. Genital stage, This is stage when the development reaches its peak maturity. Humans are entering maturity. Stages of this development was normal, from one stage to the next. However, it could be people hampered in early development. Freud called fixation. The causes vary, either because the parents, the social environment, or mental conflict.
So what relevance to corruption? To answer it, we must trace the root cause of corruption.
Gone theory
According to Jack Bologne, there are four root causes of corruption: Greed, Opportunity, Need, exposes.
a. Related Greed greed greed and corruption actors. Corruptor is a person who is not satisfied with the situation himself. Got a mountain of gold, desiring had another golden mountain. Has a myriad of treasures, want to have a private island.
b. Opportunity linked to a system that gives pit of corruption. Untidy control system, which allows a person to work carelessly. Deviations arise easily. At the same time, the system is not strict supervision. People easily manipulate numbers. Cheat free. Wide open to corruption.
c. Need relate to mental attitude is never enough, full of attitude consumerism, and always full of needs that never ended.
d. Exposes the penalties associated with lower corruption. Penalties are not deterring the offender and others. Deterrence effect is minimal.
Fourth root of the problem above is a major obstacle to eradicate corruption. But, from the fourth root of the problem of corruption was, for me, the center of everything is greedy and greedy attitude. Failing system is not necessarily to make the corruption. Urgent need not necessarily encourage corruption. Low penalties for perpetrators of corruption not necessarily make people participate inspired corruption.
In short, corrupt behavior motivated greed acute basis. The existence of gluttony and greed matchless. Corruption, cause there are people who are plentiful, there are depleted, there is a thriving, there is humiliation, there is eroding, there are depleted. Corruption parallel with greedy attitude.
Fixation and Corruption
There is a relationship between the stages of personality development of children with the condition of the child as an adult. When the stages that occur fixation or barriers personality development., Then personalities that were brought up great.
Greed is the nature of people who obstructed the development of his personality, that is when he is hampered in the anal stage personality. A child experiencing barriers anal personality on stage, when he would retain the personality of the anal. The character is marked by greed to have.
He felt pleasure in the possession of material things. Anal phase is marked by the pleasure the child see the dirt coming out of his anus. Now, dirt telahdiganti other objects. It was an influx of money, cars, houses, stocks, diamonds, gold, diamonds.
Corruptor is a child in an adult body. He's big, soul dwarf. To cure it, remove them. Show him that he basically immature. Pleasure of collecting treasures is a symbol of deviant behavior due to hampered in the development of personality in childhood.
In conclusion, criminals are minors. He still needs to learn how to improve the quality of his personality
A) Biological Approach
The phenomenon of corruption that occurred in various regions in our country on the terms of this if we examine the biological approach, it is basically human beings are not satisfied with the existing problems related to the biological problem and it needs an inherent nature of human beings or nature of innate from birth with various Characteristics, but humans have the choice to determine the differences in behavior because this behavior is characteristic of a person who distinguishes between one another.
The phenomenon of corruption is happening in various parts of the country we have beyond ridiculousness. If we examine this issue based on the biological approach is basically a human being is a creature that does not have a sense of satisfaction in what they can for this. Humans are born with a variety of characteristics that differentiate with others and play in determining behavior.
Biological characteristics in this context is;
a. Instinct (innate characteristics)
Humans have an instinct to always meet your needs and is never satisfied with what you already have.
b. Genetic factors (physical characteristics that have developed since birth)
Biologically, the genetic differences lead to differences in behavior. For example, there are some of us women (to give birth) and there was a guy (can not give birth), there is growing bigger and stronger, some are thin and small.
c. physical growth while.
That the intention here is to influence the production of hormonal or brain stimulant that is influenced by environmental and biological needs.
Characteristics of the above could be a major factor in making their corrupt acts, acts of corruption which they do this may be an impulse arising from within oneself is to commit acts of corruption to satisfy the biological needs.
Given such factors, there is still more factors that affect the people put through acts of corruption, namely with the opportunity to perform acts of corruption. With the opportunity like this, and the corruptors assume that what they do will not be known by others. The chance factor is also influenced by genetic. when people get a chance to do bad but genetic factors as well as his instincts are not familiar with it, then that person will not do acts of corruption. different from those who do not train instinct to keep from things that are bad. or even be much different with people who have a genetic selfishness to try to meet the needs of beating his personal piety to others.
B) Learning Approach
This time we analyze the problem of corruption in terms of approaches to learning, which is as if this phenomenon occurs is considered a normal masalh common especially someone living among the high-ranking State. In learning theory says that behavior is determined by what he had learned previously.
There are three mechanisms of learning, namely;
a. Associations, or better known as classical conditioning. In dogs, Pavlov associate the bell with the meat.
b. Reinforcement; person displays behavior because learning with something fun, (and vice versa)
c. Imitation; Often times someone studying attitudes and behaviors by imitating the attitude and behavior of people who become models.
Learning approach has three characteristics, namely;
a. The causes lie in the behavior of individual learning experiences in the past.
b. Put the source in the external behavior, not on the individual's subjective interpretation of what happened.
c. Approach to learning, to explain the behavior of a real, not a subjective state / certain psychological.
In the present case the criminals have learned the behavior as a habit. When they are faced with the same situation, then the recording will do halsama like what they have learned previously.
In the case of this corruption can dikatan that the high-ranking State has engaged in corruption because of their previous experience or even done some of this action. With the existence of such things then they imitate the act of corruption.
C) Incentives Approach
Based view of the theory of incentives, the corruptors of committing such actions based on the advantages and disadvantages that will be accepted after they commit the act was over. In this case the corruptors have several options that they can escape or surrender to the Commission. If they give it to ditangkapdan imprisoned (negative incentives). By escaping the recording will have fun with the money proceeds of corruption that they can (positive incentives).
In case of corruption, the corrupt and the Commission can be analyzed in the form of hostility because their interests are mutually bertetangan. The criminals are lucky if it can get away from the KPK, vice versa if the Commission is able to catch the criminals he was lucky.
The perpetrators of corruption in conducting such a course of action that they are already thinking rationally advance taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of doing it and act in a rational way to choose the best alternative. The perpetrators of corruption choose an alternative that is based on the principle of the value of their actions that will arise from the decision and alleged that their actions will arise. In this case can be analyzed because the opportunity and intention that is in contrary to the corruption of values ​​and existing laws.
D) Cognitive Theory
Basically a person's behavior depends on their perceptions of social situations, and social perceptions of law similar to the law of object perception. People organize perceptions, thoughts and beliefs about the social situation in the form of simple and meaningful and that organizing someone mepengaruhi behavior in social situations.
Cognitively, people tend to categorize objects on the basis of the principle of similarity, proximity, and experience tends to interpret the vague aspects in people. This interpretation is an implication of how observing other people and social situations.
In general, the basic cognitive principles can be categorized into several sections as follows:
a. Cognitively, people tend mengkelompokkan objects on the basis of the principle of similarity, proximity, and experience.
b. Cognitively, people tend to pay attention (interest) on something that is striking (figure) colorful, motionless, silent, unique and antique.
c. Cognitive people tend to interrupt the interpretation of obscure aspects of the self, (goals, motives, attitudes, personality traits, feelings, etc.). This interpretation is an implication of how observing other people and social situations.
Interpretation and organization of cognitive processes is very important (in this context), because it is a way of observing the implications of other people and social situations.
4. Analysis and Comment
In the case of corruption, psychologically, of course it became clear that the act of abusing the authority could have occurred because the individual already has a predisposition (nature) to cheat. Explanation is that we attribute to the personality characteristics. The question is why people who said well it turns out corruption? The behaviorist said, meaning the environment that strongly provide the impetus for people to corruption and defeating nature of someone who has a good personality traits. Environment in this case not even give you a boost and impose penalties on people when he was abusing his power. Empirical studies corroborate these assumptions regarding corruption.
There are people who argue that corruption in Indonesia has become a pandemic outbreak or disease that is difficult to eradicate. Some had argued that corruption is already a part of Indonesian culture. Corruption was widespread and deep entry in the realm of public mentality and spirit. Corruption occurs at almost every level and aspect of society, ranging from taking care of Birth Certificate, Marriage, Identity Card (KTP), Building Permit (IMB), project procurement / tender in government agencies and even been included in the law enforcement environment itself, namely the presence of mob justice (judicial corruption).
Without realizing it anyway, corruption arises from habits that are considered normal and natural by the general public, such as giving gifts (gratuities) and bribes to officials / civil servants or their families as a reward of service. Habit was considered commonplace performed as part of the oriental culture. This habit long into the seeds of corruption are real. Corruption is so great coloring of Indonesia daily. In the words of M. Hatta, corruption in this situation has been regarded as the national culture.

5.Examples of cases

Kasus Nazaruddin Contoh Korupsi Yang Sempurna - Rabu, 24 Agustus 2011 22:17 WIB
TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA - Pengamat politik dari UI, Boni Hargens menegaskan, kasus korupsi yang dilakukan oleh mantan Bendahara Partai Demokrat, Muhammad Nazaruddin harus dituntaskan. Semangat ini, ujarnya, terkait dengan politik kekuasaan dan demokrasi di republik ini.
"Kasus Nazar ini adalah sampel kasus korupsi politik yang sangat sempurna dari aspek pelaku, modus operandinya dan tentu sarat kekuasaan. Bahwa memang, ada kejanggalan dalam kasus Nazaruddin," kata Boni dalam dialog kenegaraan di Gedung MPR/DPR, Rabu (24/08/2011).
Boni mengurai, modus yang pertama mulai dari proses penangkapannya, hingga mantan Bendahara Umum Partai Demokrat, Muhammad Nazaruddin dibawa pulang ke Indonesia.
"Saya menarik kesimpulan bahwa ada rekayasa fakta hukum. Begitu Nazaruddin masuk Indonesia, fakta hukumnya sudah di reformulasi, sudah di rekayasa, sehingga kalau Nazar diam, maka itu something logik (logis)," tegasnya.
"Dan kalau kemudian Nazar mengeluarkan surat, itu juga logis. Tetapi, kalau Presidennya bereaksi, ini menjadi pertanyaan menarik," katanya lagi.
Yang pasti, lanjut Boni, sebagai saksi emas, Nazaruddin perlu dilindungi dari upaya intimidasi dan teror. Selain itu, independensi KPK juga harus betul-betul dijaga.
Dalam teori korupsi Boni menjelaskan, kasus korupsi Nazaruddin yang terjadi di negara berkembang seperti di Indonesia perlu dikonfirmasi tentang pola kerja korupsinya.
"Korupsi politik selalu merupakan kerja kolektif yang melibatkan aktor-aktor konvensional seperti partai politik, birokrasi, kapitalis di luar sistem politiknya. Kliennya nonkapitalis. Siapa mereka? yayasan dan lembaga-lembaga lain yang bukan kelompok bisnis dan juga bukan parpol," kata Boni Hargens.
6. Reference :

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