1. AL-QURAN VERSES
When referring to the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad, a leader must have 3 basic spirit (mental leadership) as mentioned by Allah in this verse:
Indeed has come to you a Messenger of your own, then felt him severe suffering, really want (faith and salvation) for you, most merciful Merciful to the believers. (QS.At-Taubah : 128).
Pointed to the paragraph above, then there are 3 properties owned by the Prophet, and that should be emulated by every leader. First, `azizun` ma `alaihi anittum, which is able to feel the hardship and suffering of others. In modern language, these properties is called "Sense of Crisis.". Second, harishun `alaikum, which has a strong commitment to the welfare of the people. In modern language these properties is called "Sense of Achievement". Third, rauf and uterus, which has the love and affection that has a high aka "Sense of Love". It says, "If You Are Not Loving, You Are Not living."
Leadership is a process of Influencing others to carry out tasks voluntary organization (Fairholm, 1991; Gardner, 2000). In fact, According Gemmil and Oakley (1992) leadership is a process of cooperation between members of the organization to formulate a new method to improve the quality of the organization. So and so (2000, p. 3) says that "leadership is a process of persuasion or example by roomates an individual (or leadership team) induce the group to pursue objectives shared by the leaders and his or her followers". So and so found that leadership is a process to influence the members of the organization to Achieve the goals that have been Formulated by the leaders and members of other Organizations. This means that leadership is not only defined in terms of position, but rather, leadership is the ability to influence others without coercion to Accomplish something that has been Formulated Earlier by members of the organization.
Leadership be is one important variable in the lives of people, even a determinant factor for progress. According to Imam Ghazali, the essence of leadership is influence, the position of a person in the eyes and in the hearts of people (maqamuka qulub fi al-nas). (Ihya '`Ulum al-Din, Without Years, vol 3, p. 45). Without influence, was named a leader even though he has formally assumed office and in government, Organizations, and corporations (company). Absence of influence identified by Jeremie Kubicek as the death of leadership, in the famous book, Leadership is Dead: How Influence is Reviving It!. (Jeremie Kubicek, New York, Howard Book, 2011), p, 12 ff.).
3. THEORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
Leading research on the effect of leadership and leadership styles are clearly presented by Daniel Goleman, a psychologist and researcher from Harvard University. He argues that in broad outline, no one's leadership style 6, namely:
1. Pacesetting Leader
Leader with pacesetting style typically apply high standards to all his men and tend to "force" men to follow standard owned. In general, a leader in the use of force when he needs a good and fast results to prove to the service users and the organization that he is able to give the best. This leadership style is perfect if a leader has men who have skill and high motivation. When simplified with one sentence, it can be described with the following sentence. "Do as I ask, now."
2. Authoritative Leader
For the second type, the words "Come with me" to describe his leadership style. Authoritative leaders will put forward a complete vision and mission as well as its implementation handed to his men, where the leaders will stay evaluating team performance. Such leaders have a positive effect of the emergence of the spirit of work and creativity terasahnya. This type of leadership is perfect for a group who live in an era of change, where the new vision is needed to advance.
3. Affiliative leader
Affiliative style is very useful when team members have a lot of disappointed by the situation and had many unpleasant things in the organization. Leaders tend to come down and listen to the aspirations of its members and using empathy in communicating with its members. Affiliative styles tend to be fun for the men, but could have a boomerang effect, which is difficult to push the men to bring high productivity.
4. Coaching Leader
As the name implies, this style leader with more focus on developing the skills of its members. He match his men the opportunity to develop the obligations that must be provided by the organization. For example, when an organization needs innovation, it will give a chance to some members of his team to experiment and be a "coach" who always motivate them in driving the success of innovation that will be useful to the organization. This style is very good in developing the skills of members, but not all organizations have the luxury in terms of time to allow time for members to "trial-error".
5. Coercive Leader
Words that can describe a leader with coercive force is "Do what you are commanded", without giving a space for men to improvise. Maybe some views say that this leadership style is not ideal because it tends rude and did not give freedom to subordinates, but this style is most effective when an organization is on the verge of bankruptcy or in a panic situation. For example, a situation where you and the team are trapped inside a burning building, as a team leader, you can not possibly let your child express his desire fruit each and then just ask her to follow you, but, in the style of any compulsion you determine what carried out and the route that must be passed in order to save themselves.
6. Democratic Leader
As the name suggests, a democratic-style leaders tend to ask the aspirations of each of its members. If there is a proposal in accordance with the direction of the organization, then the leader will accommodate and approve the proposal. This is very useful if the organization takes new ideas to improve performance.
Some facts are evident from Jokowi is they do not like to scold voorijder, straight down to make unannounced visits to the village offices, as well as touring in the villages to see the situation of the city, in Islam called azizun `ma` alaihi anittum, which is able to sense trouble and suffering of others. One thing that is very, very rarely done by the previous governor, a style that can be classified as Affiliative Style and Democratic, which in Islam is called rauf and uterus, which has love and affection are high. While from some impressions in social media, we see Ahok harder and often asked his men to do as you're told can be classified as Pacesetting and authoritative style, in Islam called harishun `alaikum, which has a strong commitment to the welfare of the people.
According to Daniel Goleman, no leadership style is ideal for all situations. Mainly because Jokowi and Ahok have different audiences, therefore the two leadership styles are different. So, when we often see that as a leader, Jokowi appear more affiliative, democratic, and Ahok appear harder with Pacesetting and authoritative style of leadership is exactly what is perceived as working more effective and efficient in helping the Government of DKI Jakarta develop services and fulfill all its promises to cope with floods and traffic jams. In conclusion, as a team Jokowi-Ahok exhibit some combination of leadership styles, while it looks contradictory, actually functions complement each other in addressing the capital which has many dimensions and be dealt with in different ways. Thus, Space Psychology pretty sure if Jokowi-Ahok constant can show what kind of performance that has been run over the years, the leadership they will provide substantial positive impact to the city of Jakarta.
5. FACT OR DOCUMENTATION
Jokowi Kena Macet Dua Jam ke Kampung Melayu
Penulis : Kurnia Sari Aziza | Rabu, 17 Oktober 2012 | 14:17 WIB