Senin, 15 April 2013

english midle test_Kariba Husnayayyin AZ_11410065


Kariba Husnayayyin Azh zhifar 

1. Definition
1.1 Corruption According to Al-Quran
            Islam can not be found in the notion or definition of corruption, because corruption is a modern term. Forms of corruption, as defined by definition GPNK (National Anti-Corruption movement) PP Muhammadiyah include acts contrary to the norms of society, religion, morality in order to enrich themselves or others and result in the loss of the rights of others. these expressions can be encountered in some of the concepts of the normative teachings of Islam and the rule of law jurisprudence. Some terms that contain elements of corruption are: ghulu (cheating), risywah (bribes), ghasab (robs), and sariqah (stealing). In Islam, justice is a noble trait. In the Koran itself, we often come across verses that command us to be fair, honest, and not follow the lust like the example below:

[We said], "O David, indeed We have made you a successor upon the earth, so judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah ." Indeed, those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Account.   
            This verse commands us as the inheritors of the earth is to be ruler be fair and do not follow the passions. Prophet himself said:
عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ كُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ الْإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالرَّجُلُ رَاعٍ فِي أَهْلِهِ وَهُوَ مَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ رَاعِيَةٌ فِي بَيْتِ زَوْجِهَا وَمَسْئُولَةٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهَا وَالْخَادِمُ رَاعٍ فِي مَالِ سَيِّدِهِ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ وَكُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ وَمَسْئُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ

            Of Ibn Umar r.a. Indeed the Prophet. Said: "You are the leader, who will be held accountable. Ruler is a leader, and will be held accountable for his leadership. The husband is the leader of his family, and will be held accountable for his leadership. The wife is the leader of her husband at home, and will be held accountable for his leadership. The waiter is a leader in mengelolaharta his master, and will be questioned about his leadership. Therefore you as a leader will be held accountable for his leadership. "
From the above hadith can be taken in the development of any level meaning that the man is a leader, including for himself. Every deed and action has risks that must be accounted for.

1.2 Corruption in Psychology and other
            Corruption itself comes from the Latin, meaning corruptio-corrumpere rotten, damaged, destabilizing, twisting or bribe. While corruption by Huntington (1968) is the behavior of public officials who deviate from the norms accepted by society, and deviant behavior is addressed in order to satisfy personal interests.
According to Law no. 31 of 1999 in Article 2 is as follows: "Any person who acts unlawfully Enriching himself or another person or a corporation that can be detrimental to the financial state or country's economy". Normative means we can understand that corruption has three main elements as a form of corruption against the law, with the aim to enrich themselves, and it is detrimental to state finances.
According MohtarMas'oed (1994) defines corruption as behavior which deviates from the formal duties of a public office because of the desire to obtain economic benefits or status for themselves, their immediate family or a click.
According Alfiler (1986) bureaucratic corruption (bureaucratic corruption) as a behavior that is designed in fact a behavior that deviates from the expected norms of the intentionally done to obtain material benefits or other rewards.

2. Theory study
By definition it can not find the definition of corruption according to Psychology. However, there are several theories that could be associated with the psychology of corruption cases. One is the theory of the Big Five. This theory was first introduced by Goldberg in 1981. Also called the Five Factor Model by Costa & McRae made ​​based on a simpler approach. Big Five Personality is an approach to classifying personality psychology personality traits with factor analysis. The five traits are Extraversion (E), Agreebleness (A), Conscientiousness (C), Neuoriticism (N), Openness to Experiences (O).
·           Extraversion (E) is called dominant-submissive factors (dominance-submissiveness). Characterized by positive affect as having enthusiasm high, love to hang out, have a positive emotion, energetic, etc..
·           Agreebleness (A) also referred to as social adaptibility or likability. Indicate someone who is friendly, have the tendency to avoid conflicts and to follow others.
·           Neuroticism (N) describes a person who has problems with negative emotions such as anxiety and insecurity.
·           Openness (O) a person how to make adjustments on a new idea or situation. Tend to be creative, expansive mood, and loved the diversity.
·           Concientiousness (C) is also called dependability, impulse control, and will toachieve. Someone who has the self-control of the social environment, thinking before acting, delaying gratification, follow the rules and norms, planned, and organized.

3. Analysis
            Traits (personality factors) on the Big Five Personality can predict the tendency of individuals to behave corruption (Arrigo and Claussen: 2003 and Conelly and Ones: 2008). Indivodu high extraversion will meminimalirisir / negate someone propensity to engage in corruption because of the nature optimistic and active he will not cut corners when faced with problems. If high Conscientiousness on that individual then that individual is not likely to do corruption. Agreebleness not directly related to the tendency of corrupt behavior. When high Neuroticism individuals then it will tend to engage in corruption because of his attitude tend nervous, anxious, panicky and emotional when faced with a problem. High Openness will not tend to make a person engage in corruption because he would be able to overcome the problem with his own creativity without having to commit fraud. As shown in the table below,
Psychopathology (behavior change)
High Score Characteristics
Traits Scale
Low Score
Ekstraversion (E)
Easy to adapt to the social environment, active, talkative, relationship oriented fellow.
Measure the quantity and intensity of interpersonal interaction, activity level, need for encouragement.
Not friendly, unpretentious, aloof, task orientation, taciturn.

Agreebleness (A)
Soft heart, trustworthy, helpful, forgiving, submissive.
Measuring the quality of what is done by others and what is done to others.
Cynical, rude, suspicious, uncooperative, vengeful, cruel, manipulative
Neuroticism (N)
Anxiety,nervousness, emotional, insecure, feel inadequate, panic.
Emotional stability with strong negative feelings coverage including anxiety, sadness, irritability and nervous tension.
Calm, relaxed, secure, satisfied with himself, not emotional, stoic.

Openness (O)
Want to know, broad interests, creative, original, imaginative, untraditional.
Overview of the breadth, depth, complex, ridding individual mental and experiences.
Conventional simple, narrow interests, not artistic.

Concientiousness (C)
Control yourself, obey the norms, delaying gratification
Dependability, impulse control, and will toachieve
Can not control themselves, less obedient to the rules, careless
            From these explanations it is clear that there is the relationship between the science of psychology with corruption. In general, the science of psychology that can be used to determine the motive of the acts of corruption through various theories.

4. Case Example

Nazaruddin corruption case

JAKARTA - Convicted of bribery Pensions SEA Games Athletes, Muhammad Nazaruddin, come tripping cases of alleged corruption procurement project simulator driving license (SIM) in the Traffic Police Corps.

He is known to be involved procurement that is currently being investigated by the Corruption Eradication Commission. According to documents obtained by reporters KPK, tender procurement project was followed by the five winners of the tender. The two companies allegedly owned by Muhammad Nazaruddin, namely PT Digo Mitra Slogan and PT Intan Prima pool, join projects worth Rp196.867.952.000.

Three other companies, PT Citra Mandiri Metalindo Abadi, PT Bentina Agung and PT Dasma Pertiwi. The project was divided into two, the simulator for two-wheeled vehicles with a contract value Rp54.453.000.000 and wheel simulators for 4 with a value Rp142.414.952.000.

Integration involvement Nazar was known from the File Interrogation former subordinates Neng Sri Wahyu's husband, Yulianis, in front of the investigator. When examined as a witness in a different case, Yulianis mentioned Nazaruddin and his wife had 38 companies including PT Digo Mitra Slogan and PT Intan Prima pool.

Here are some names perusaan of 38 companies allegedly owned by Nazaruddin:

- PT Permai Raya Holidays
- PT Mahkota State
- PT Children Affairs
- PT Anugrah Nusantara
- PT Exartech Technology Home
- PT Perkasa Alfindo Nuratama
- Horizon PT Abadi
- Build Nuralindo PT Perkasa
- PT Pacific Putra Metropolitan
- PT Marell Mandiri
- PT Citra Permata Two
- PT Buana Gemilang Ramosari
- PT Nuri Main Sanjaya
- PT Sean Hulbert Jaya
- PT Executive Money Changer
- PT Digo Mitra Slogan
- PT Alam Abundant Blessings
- PT Darmakusumah
- Etc.
Of recognition reporting SIM simulator case, Bambang Sukotjo, PT Digo Mitra Slogan known to have won the tender for the simulator project in 2010. Commercial company based in Duren Sawit Center #. 8-S, Jalan Duren Sawit Raya Klender Urban Village, Duren Sawit, East Jakarta simulator unit that handles 50 types of Isuzu Elf, 7 simulaor Hino Ranger type and 100 type unit Honda Tiger.

Nazaruddin previously had said he did not want to be connected to the simulator project that currently ensnare governor Police Academy (Police Academy) Inspector General of Police as the suspect Djoko Susilo.


Alatas, S,H. 1975. Sosiologi Korupsi. Jakarta : LP3ES.
Arrigo, B.A. and Claussen, N. 2003. Police Corruption and Psychological Testing: A Strategy for Preemployment Screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Volume 47.
Conelly, B.S. and Ones, D.S. 2008. The Personality of Corruption: A National-Level Analysis. Cross-Cultural Research.  Volume 42.
Feist, J. and Feist, G.J. 2008. Theories of Personality (edisi keenam). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Sarwono, S.W. 2008. Teori-Teori Psikologi Sosial. Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada.
Sobur, Alex. 2009. Psikologi Umum. Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia.
Psikologi Islam, (Online), (, diakses 15 April 2013.
Barokah Ahmad, 2012, Definisi Korupsi, (Online), (, diakses 13 April 2013.
Aprianti Rabi’atul, 2011, PsikoKorupsi?: Psikologi dan Korupsi, (Online), (  , diakses 13 April 2013.

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar