Senin, 15 April 2013

Corruption By Riza Wahyu Aftasony (11410069)

1.      Verses of the Qur'an about Corruption (QS : Al Baqoroh 188)

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا فَرِيقًا مِنْ أَمْوَالِ

النَّاسِ بِالْإِثْمِ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

2.      Definition of Corruption

·         The meaning of Surah Al Baqarah 188
And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.
·         Corruption in Psychology
Behavior of public officials (government officials), which is not fair and not legal enrich enrich themselves or those close to him, by abusing public power entrusted to them.
·         Origin of the word Corruption
Corruption starts from the Latin corruptio or corruptus. Corruptio corrumpere derived from the word, a Latin word which older. From the Latin that is down to many European languages ​​such as English, namely corruption, corrupt; France, namely corruption, and the Netherlands is corruptie, korruptie. Dutch word of this was down to the Indonesian namely corruption.
·         Corruption in the dictionary of Indonesian
corruption is the misuse or abuse of state funds (enterprise and so on) for personal gain or other person
·          Corruption in the Dictionary of Law, 2002
misappropriation or embezzlement of state funds or the company as a person work for personal gain or other person
·         Arrigo and Claussen (2003)
corruption as a "take it or accept a benefit for
themselves are not legally valid because the individual has the authority and power ". So obviously in this sense, all forms of embezzlement, theft of public funds to benefit themselves is an act of corruption.
·          Black's Law Dictionary
corruption is an act committed with the intent to provide a benefit that is not authorized by the rights of any other party to use his or her character to obtain a benefit for himself or another person, contrary to duty and the rights of other parties.
·          According to Wikipedia
behavior of public officials, both politicians | politicians and civil servants, which is not fair and not legal enrich enrich themselves or those close to him, to the misuse of public power entrusted to them.

3.      Corruption in Theory Psychology
According to the field of psychology there are two theories that lead to corruption:

1. Field theory
and the theory of big five personality.
According to Lewin (cited in Sarwono, 2008) is the field theory of human behavior is the result of the interaction between personality factors (personality) and environmental (environment) or in other words, the pitch of one's life consists of itself and the environment, particularly the psychological environment (psychological) available to it. Through this theory, it is clear that corruption is analyzed and predicted diapat has two options namely motif of the environment or the individual personalities involved.

2.  The second
theory is the theory of the big five personality.
According to Costa and McCrae (cited in Feist & Feist, 2008), the big five personality is a concept that suggests that a person's personality consists of five factors of personality, namely extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness.
There are three things why someone did Corruption:
·         Psychology flow "behaviouris" says that most human behavior is influenced (not determined) by factors that are outside himself. Among other surveillance system of the country is very weak, corrupt system of penalties for a very light, fragile legal system, political system that is not professional and other environmental factors.
·         In addition to factors such bad systems in point one above, as well as work environment factors that are corruptive where corruption is the interplay between the individual and other individuals. Justify each other and protect each other for mutual benefit.
·         personality factors.
·         Another theory about the causes of corruption
Jack Bologne, believes there are four causes of corruption which may be called the theory of "GONE" :
1. Greed
·         Greed. Is self-aggrandizement. Always less. Not satisfied with what they have. Always wanted to have more, better in any way.
·         Opportunity. Poor management of the government and the company will result in poor management swasta.Buruknya supervision so wide open opportunity to perform data manipulation, mark up the price and markup markup quality and quantity.
·         Need. Attitude konsumerisme.Semua it is considered a necessity and must be purchased. If wishes come true yet, feeling uneasy.
·         Exposes. Punishment for the corrupt low. Remission of which can be purchased. Law enforcement officials easily bribed. Relieve the witness is a false witness fee. Evidence may be modified or eliminated.

Corruption in the Indonesian country  can be studied and analyzed by a psychological theory approach:

a. Approach to the theory of biological
b. Approach to learning theory
c.  Incentive theory approach
d. Cognitive theory approach

            Although it can not completely describe the results of an analysis of the corruption case, at least a little closer so we could do the picketing on the corruption case.

1. Biological Approach
            The phenomenon of corruption that occurred in various regions in our country on the terms of this if we examine the biological approach, it is basically human beings are not satisfied with the existing problems related to the biological problem and it needs an inherent nature of human beings or nature of innate from birth with various Characteristics, but humans have the choice to determine the differences in behavior because this behavior is characteristic of a person who distinguishes between one another.

            The phenomenon of corruption is happening in various parts of the country we have beyond ridiculousness. If we examine this issue based on the biological approach is basically a human being is a creature that does not have a sense of satisfaction in what they can for this. Humans are born with a variety of characteristics that differentiate with others and play in determining behavior.

Biological characteristics in this context is;

a. Instinct (innate characteristics)
            Humans have an instinct to always meet your needs and is never satisfied with what you already have.
b. Genetic factors (physical characteristics that have developed since birth)
            Biologically, the genetic differences lead to differences in behavior. For example, there are some of us women (to give birth) and there was a guy (can not give birth), there is growing bigger and stronger, some are thin and small.
c. physical growth while.
            That the intention here is to influence the production of hormonal or brain stimulant that is influenced by environmental and biological needs.
            Characteristics of the above could be a major factor in making their corrupt acts, acts of corruption which they do this may be an impulse arising from within oneself is to commit acts of corruption to satisfy the biological needs.

            There is still more factors that affect the people put through acts of corruption, namely with the opportunity to perform acts of corruption. With the opportunity like this, and the corruptors assume that what they do will not be known by others. The chance factor is also influenced by genetic. when people get a chance to do bad but genetic factors as well as his instincts are not familiar with it, then that person will not do acts of corruption. different from those who do not train instinct to keep from things that are bad. or even be much different with people who have a genetic selfishness to try to meet the needs of beating his personal piety to others.

2. Learning approach
            This time we analyze the problem of corruption in terms of approaches to learning, which is as if this phenomenon occurs is considered a normal masalh common especially someone living among the high-ranking State. In learning theory says that behavior is determined by what he had learned previously.
There are three mechanisms of learning, namely;
a. Associations, or better known as classical conditioning. In dogs, Pavlov associate the bell with the meat.
b. Reinforcement; person displays behavior because learning with something fun, (and vice versa)
c. Imitation; Often times someone studying attitudes and behaviors by imitating the attitude and behavior of people who become models.
Learning approach has three characteristics, namely;
a. The causes lie in the behavior of individual learning experiences in the past.
b. Put the source in the external behavior, not on the individual's subjective interpretation of what happened.
c. Approach to learning, to explain the behavior of a real, not a subjective state / certain psychological.
            In the present case the criminals have learned the behavior as a habit. When they are faced with the same situation, then the recording will do halsama like what they have learned previously.
            In the case of this corruption can dikatan that the high-ranking State has engaged in corruption because of their previous experience or even done some of this action. With the existence of such things then they imitate the act of corruption.

3.      Incentives Approach
Based view of the theory of incentives, the corruptors of committing such actions based on the advantages and disadvantages that will be accepted after they commit the act was over. In this case the corruptors have several options that they can escape or surrender to the Commission. If they give it to ditangkapdan imprisoned (negative incentives). By escaping the recording will have fun with the money proceeds of corruption that they can (positive incentives).
In case of corruption, the corrupt and the Commission can be analyzed in the form of hostility because their interests are mutually bertetangan. The criminals are lucky if it can get away from the KPK, vice versa if the Commission is able to catch the criminals he was lucky.
The perpetrators of corruption in conducting such a course of action that they are already thinking rationally advance taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of doing it and act in a rational way to choose the best alternative. The perpetrators of corruption choose an alternative that is based on the principle of the value of their actions that will arise from the decision and alleged that their actions will arise. In this case can be analyzed because the opportunity and intention that is in contrary to the corruption of values ​​and existing laws.
4.      Cognitive Theory
Basically a person's behavior depends on their perceptions of social situations, and social  perceptions of law similar to the law of object perception. People organize perceptions, thoughts and beliefs about the social situation in the form of simple and meaningful and that organizing someone mepengaruhi behavior in social situations.
Cognitively, people tend to categorize objects on the basis of the principle of similarity, proximity, and experience tends to interpret the vague aspects in people. This interpretation is an implication of how observing other people and social situations.
Cognitively, people tend to categorize objects on the basis of the principle of similarity, proximity, and experience tends to interpret the vague aspects in people. This interpretation is an implication of how observing other people and social situations.
In general, the basic cognitive principles can be categorized into several sections as follows:
a. Cognitively, people tend mengkelompokkan objects on the basis of the principle of similarity, proximity, and experience.
b. Cognitively, people tend to pay attention (interest) on something that is striking (figure) colorful, motionless, silent, unique and antique.
c. Cognitive people tend to interrupt the interpretation of obscure aspects of the self, (goals, motives, attitudes, personality traits, feelings, etc.). This interpretation is an implication of how observing other people and social situations.
Interpretation and organization of cognitive processes is very important (in this context), because it is a way of observing the implications of other people and social situations.
Back on corruption cases that have been studied, the perpetrators of corruption are not observing the Commission or the applicable laws and instruments in Indonesia as separate parts, but overall the KPK's corruption generally see it as a duty, character, behavior, etc. as it has been he knew before. So like what they have perceived, the Commission is a threat to him. On the basis of the interpretation and cognitive organization, the perpetrator can escape berekaksi to and can have fun with the proceeds of corruption.

Cognitive theory emphasizes two things;
1. Focus on interpretation (perceptual organization) about the current state is not a state of the past. (How corruption was done because it needs now to enrich himself without seeing the state of her past. So that could be used to that he was a good person, but because of the chance that he could get him to corruption because of the position he is now profitable)
2. The causes of behavior lies in the perception (interpretation) of the individuals of the situation, rather than on the reality of his own situation. (How to interpret a situation that corruption (the time) is important, rather than what the actual situation was. So when people think it will never pass for corruption.
4.      Analysis and Comment

Phenomenon of abstraction and elaboration of existing theory can analyze some things about the corruption cases through the psychological perspective. through biological theory approach can be seen that instinct (innate character) man who though not official he would tend to enrich themselves to meet their needs and will always add and accumulate wealth.
From here can be a little give an idea that corruption is an act that can be performed by anyone because of instinct luggage that is never satisfied with what they have and tend to enrich themselves. Genetic factors also have an important role, because the instinct among people who enrich themselves with the other one will be different. Similarly, some people may be due to genetic
reasons, selfish has greater value to enrich themselves from the others that made it even can make people miserable as well as corruption. In the case above, Corrupt officials may have a more dominant genetic egoisya value so it is always concerned with personal interest in meeting their needs. Through learning theory approach, analysis results can be obtained is that the corruptors, they might as sume that they act lawfully done because the people before they also do the same thing and do not get too heavy punishment when caught.
If the incentive theory approach, there is another reason why criminals commit acts of corruption. Behavior of (a) is determined by the available incentives. People act based on profits and losses will be accepted after the behavior is completed, the case of corruption by some officials, officials have several options that can be described as follows:

a. If corruption is not exposed then the offender would be a rich man and could do anything with the money he had (positive incentives)
b. If he does not corrupt the opportunity to become rich by using his position will be lost (positive incentives)
c. If corruption and caught it will make him jailed and imprisoned also still be purchased with money so that he could still free from jail even corruption money is still more than enough to bribe prison (positive incentives)
d. If corruption is the personal moral values ​​will go down and insulted (negative incentives)
From this description a little incentive, we can see that corruption has gained a lot of positive incentives and incentives for a slightly negative. perhaps this is where many of the officials who engage in corruption. However, if the officer has a strong personality in the moral value of the positive incentives that negative moral value it would not be a positive incentive but rather a negative incentive. so that officials who have personality and high moral character would never do corruption.
Derived from cognitive theory approach to the analysis that the corrupt officials currently have no guilt at all giving rise to this moment that corruption is commonplace in public perception. So when this corruption is a reasonable thing to do because of the social situation that is created today makes corruption is a common problem on the officials.
Indonesia is a country ranked as the fourth state of corruption in asia. Various policies issued by the government was also able to eradicate corruption. Habits of corruption especially in government institutions seems to really structured and this habit even though inherited from one generation to another. For that there should be strict precautions to corrupt leaders.

  1. Examples of cases

Corruption News Angelina Sondakh

Is no longer a case of corruption in the country bberita new premises. Almost every day in the news that a case of corruption by state officials. Pejabata which incidentally is selected for each state by the people in elections.
News artist entered parliament also not a stranger to the ear of the people of Indonesia. Boosted by the popularity of the entertainment factor; films, models, humor, models, etc., banhyak artists and actors that exist in Indonesia rama-crowded running for representative of the people, and the results were fantastic most of them easily elected .
So even with the beautiful model, Angelina Sondakh or Angelina Sondakh Massaid, wife mending Adjie Massaid artists also dare to plunge in politics shutter.
Patricia Angelina Sondakh Pingkan or call Angie (born in Australia, December 28, 1977, age 34 years) is Indonesian actress and politician. He became a suspect in corruption and bribery is related project budget discussion Wisma Atlet corruption and politicians Palembang Indonesia. He became known after his election to the winner of Miss Indonesia beauty pageant in 2001. Subseq.
uently, she went into politics and was elected as a Member of the Parliament of the Republic of Indonesia in 2004-2009 and 2009-2014 from the Democratic Party. In 2012, he became a suspect in a bribery homestead SEA Games athletes that involve a number of other Indonesian politicians.
When on Friday, February 3, 2012, Anti-Corruption Commission established him as a suspect corruption project house athletes in Palembang. Determination as graft suspect KPK chairman Abraham Samad presented at the Building Commission, Jalan Kuningan, Jakarta Selatan.Dalam trial defendant bribery homestead athletes, Muhammad Nazaruddin mention of Rp 2 billion to Angelina and I Wayan Koster Rp 3 billion. He has also been prevented from traveling out of the country during 2012-3 February 3 February 2013.
"Dropping 12 years imprisonment for reduced prison terms for defendants in custody. Coupled fine of Rp 500 million, plus subsidiary 6 months confinement," said Public Prosecutor Kresno Anto Wibowo when reading the demands in the trial at the Corruption Court, Kuningan, Jakarta south, Thursday (20/12). Wife of the late Adjie Massaid it is also required to pay billions of dollars for compensation for his actions. "The defendant pay compensation amounting to Rp 12,580 billion and U.S. $ 230 and paid at least one month after the decision of the court has fixed laws. If not paid then charged with criminal 2 years in prison," said the public prosecutor.
Emergence, many cases of corruption in Indonesia, as no end is due to the destruction of our nationality grammatical system. There have been many events happening at a time when many good people into parliament "is broken 'suddenly became evil and the courage to act because of the many temptations of fraud. Temptation of power itself, and the most severe is the temptation of this broken system.
Documentation :


6.      Reference :

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