Leadership in the Quran (Islam)
1). Definition of leadership (leadership)
Leader said that in the Koran uses the word Caliph, is mentioned 127 times, in 12 the event. Revolves around the verb meaning "change", "left", or the noun "substitute", or heir. In terminology, this word contains at least two double meaning. On the one hand, is defined as a caliph head of state and government of the Islamic empire in the past, the same meaning in the context of the sovereign kingdom. On the other hand, it also means two kinds caliph. The first, embodied in the sovereign or head of state position. Second, the function of the man himself on earth as God's creation is perfect.
In connection with this definition, origin pakistan `ulama scholar Abul A` la Al-Mawdudi has authored a book entitled Al-Khilafah wa al-Mulk. According to him, the term caliphate comes from the same root with the caliph, which means governance or leadership. Khilafah, as a derivative of the word caliphate is the Islamic theory of state and government. In order to obtain some idea about the sense in the context of Caliph Al-Qur `an was revealed following a few verses of surah Al-A` raf, Al-An `am and Al Fatiir letter:
اَوَعَجِبۡتُمۡ اَنۡ جَآءَكُمۡ ذِكۡرٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّكُمۡ عَلٰى رَجُلٍ مِّنۡكُمۡ لِيُنۡذِرَكُمۡ ؕ وَاذۡكُرُوۡۤا اِذۡ جَعَلَـكُمۡ ۚ خُلَفَآءَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ قَوۡمِ نُوۡحٍ وَّزَادَكُمۡ فِى الۡخَـلۡقِ بَصۜۡطَةً فَاذۡكُرُوۡۤا اٰ لَۤاءَ اللّٰهِ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ
Meaning: Do you (do not believe) and wonder that come to you from your Lord brought warning by a man of you to give a warning to you? and remember to you all in time God made you as surrogate (ruling) after the disappearance of the Ark, and God has preferred body strength and perawakanmu (rather than the Noah's). So remember the favors of Allah that you may prosper (Al-A'raf: 69)
Meaning: and He is the one who made you rulers of the earth, and He raised you up partly partly (the others) some degree, to test you on what is given you. Verily your Lord is swift in retribution Amat and Verily, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Meaning: and the unbelievers for them Hell. they are not destroyed so that they are dead and not (also) be relieved of their azabnya. Thus do We reward the very heathen Everyone (Al-faatir: 36)
Leadership in Social Psychological Perspective
1). Definition of Leadership
A natural thing that some experts opinion on this kepemimipinan. This is partly because the different viewpoints among experts one by one expert to another expert. Kemimpinan (Leadership) is the ability of a person (ie the leader or leaders) to influence others (ie, led or his followers), so that the other person is behaving as desired by the leader. Kadangala distinguished between a position of leadership and leadership as a social process. As a social process, leadership tindaakan includes everything a person does or something body, which causes movement of the people.
Leadership is nothing official (formal leadership) are knotted in a leadership position, and there is also a recognition of community leadership as the ability of a person to execute leadership. A striking difference between the official leadership unofficial (informal leadership) is that it is above the foundations or official regulations, and thus allows for variations of power is rather limited as well. Unofficial leadership has the scope without formal boundaries, because it is based on the recognition of leadership and public trust. Whether or not the size of the unofficial leadership lies in the objective results of the implementation of the leadership that is considered beneficial or detrimental to the public. Although an official leader should not deviate from the official rules.
Leadership is the art of coordinating and directing individuals or groups to achieve a desired goal.
Leadership is characterized by personality traits in a situation where in particular took an important role in achieving the objectives of the group together with the other members. These traits are functionally related to the achievement of objectives. Maintenance and strengthening of the group.
From several different formulation turned out that in every issue there will be a leadership three elements:
1. Human element The man as a leader or as they are led. How the relationship between them was in the leadership situation, how a leader and that leadership requirements tanp melukan how humans should treat it as a human being.
2. element means Ie merupaka all sorts of leadership principles and techniques used in its implementation. Including knowledge and experience that comes to the man himself and the group of men. Used basic science such as psychology, sociology, and so forth menegemen.
3. objective elements That is the ultimate goal towards which groups of people will be driven toward a specific purpose. The third element in implementation is always there and connected with one another.
2). Types of Leadership
Classification based on the way the leader or the approach taken by the leader, namely:
1. Authoritarian leadership
The leader determines everything. All activities carried out on the instructions of the group leader. Leaders organize and dictate members. Members just as the execution of the leader. Members were never told about the plans that will be implemented by the group. Position as if the leaders apart from the led. Because leaders relate to members only when giving instructions or orders. Leaders did not participate in group activities.
2. Democratic leadership Leadership puts member as a friend and not as people employed. Duties and obligations executed together with the leaders. Responsibility is divided among all the members. If there is an error member, warned in an expedient manner.
3. Liberal leadership
Passive leader, did not participate in the activities kelompo. He is outside the group, but the leader does not lead to release its members.
Leadership (Leadership) is the ability of a person (ie the leader or leaders) to influence others (ie, led or his followers), so that the other person is behaving as desired by the leader. As for the types of leadership are: authoritarian leadership, democratic leadership, liberal leadership, and leadership development.
And the function of leadership in the group, helping set goals group, maintaining the group, giving symbols for identification, and represent the group to another group.
Evidence and Reality Leadership Prophet
Prophet Muhammad successfully leading pluralistic nation to always keep peace, tolerance and invite the people away from violence. This was conveyed by KH Abdullah Sattar of Klakah Lumajang time of religious speech in commemoration of the birthday of Muhammad Nab Talkandang Village Kotaanyar Probolinggo District, Wednesday (6/2) nights.
According to Kiai Abdullah Sattar, history has recorded that the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad managed to keep the brotherhood, harmony, tolerance and give an example of nonviolent society. "Warning Birthday of Prophet Muhammad SAW is one proof of our love for the Prophet Muhammad who has led his people out of ignorance toward nature natural light. May we ever get the intercession of the Prophet Muhammad, "he said.
Not only that, Kiai Abdullah Sattar also praised the example of Prophet Muhammad SAW in leading the people of the time of ignorance toward the dark better. "The attitude of the leadership of the Prophet should be owned by everyone. Emulate the leadership of the Prophet to be applied in everyday life in the midst of society, "he said.
According to Kiai famous humor kocaknya this, the Prophet Muhammad has taught his people about morals, manners and good speech should be a role model. Moreover, the nature of hard work, effort, do not break up as well be an example of the Prophet Muhammad to his people. "As the people of the Prophet Muhammad, it is appropriate that we always imitate all behavior and actions undertaken by the Prophet. The example should be a role model in life, "he explained.
Kiai Abdullah Sattar added, also noting that the history of the Prophet Muhammad's leadership managed to keep the brotherhood, harmony, tolerance and give examples of people away from violence. To that end, the example of the Prophet Muhammad rightly always be a guide in life. "Let us be an example and look up with," he said.
Posted: 17/11/2012 17:37
Liputan6.com, Jakarta: Gaya kepemimpinan Gubernur dan Wakil Gubernur DKI Jakarta, Joko Widodo (Jokowi) dan Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) yang bertolak belakang dinilai banyak kalangan merupakan kombinasi yang tepat untuk mendobrak birokrasi yang berbelit.
Pembawaan Jokowi yang sabar dapat mengimbangi pembawaan Ahok yang cenderung blak-blakan. Gaya kepemimpinan kedua tokoh Jakarta ini pun menuai banyak perhatian sejak video rapat kerja yang digelar Pemprov Jakarta yang diwakili Ahok bersama Dinas Pekerjaan Umum (PU) diunggah ke situs YouTube. Dalam video tersebut, Ahok memperlihatkan kemarahan saat meminta semua pejabat untuk menurunkan pagu anggaran.
Media YouTube memang dijadikan sarana baru bagi Pemprov Jakarta untuk memperlihatkan keterbukaan dalam pemerintahan. Video yang diunggah tersebut sukses mendapatkan perhatian masyarakat dan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang mengundang sensasi. Hal ini terbukti dari seringnya video tersebut dilihat yang hingga saat ini sudah 500 ribu kali.
Ketika ditanyakan mengenai gaya kepemimpinannya yang menuai sensasi tersebut, Ahok hanya menjawab diplomatis. "Saya tidak bisa tiru gaya. Saya orang Sumatra," ucapnya.
Sementara sang Gubernur Jokowi tidak merasa keberatan atas gaya kepemimpinan wakilnya tersebut. "Saya tidak keberatan. Setiap orang memang punya gaya sendiri-sendiri," ungkapnya.
Gaya kepemimpinan keduanya menurut pengamat sejarah dan budaya JJ Rizal adalah kombinasi yang tepat untuk mendobrak garis birokrasi yang berbelit. Ketika Ahok tidak segan menemui langsung para demonstran, Sedangkan Jokowi yang kalem lebih senang melihat langsung kondisi masyarakat dan spontan membuat warga terkaget-kaget. Gaya kepemimpinan boleh berbeda, tapi kerja nyatalah yang ditunggu oleh masyarakat.(NDY/ADO)
- Abu Ahmadi. (2007). Psikologi Sosial. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
- Bimo Walgito. (1999). Psikologi Sosial Suatu Pengantar. Yogyakarta: CV Andi Offset.