Minggu, 14 April 2013

Tugas UTS English II (Mas'ul Khusnah_11410021)

“Corruption in Psychology and Islamic Perspective”

1.      Corruption Islamic Perspective
When we refer to some definitions that have been referred to in the previous section, then the Qur'an as scripture Muslims strongly oppose, condemn and even proscribe acts of corruption, Islam strongly opposes kanrena forms of action in the form of betrayal, corruption, taking other's property improper way and everything that hurt people. And it should be noted that the present Quran is to order enjoining evil. Acts of corruption, bribery and actions that harm others is an act of evil to be prevented and eradicated. Among the Qu'ran verses that prevent, prohibit such actions are:
a.       Surah Ali Imran: 161
"And do not some of you take the other half possessions among you with a false path and do not bring (the affairs of) the treasure to the judge, that you may eat partly than other people's property (the road) to sin, but ye know."
b.      Surah al-Baqarah: 42
"And do not confuse that right with a false and do not hide that it's right, while you know.
c.       Surah An-Nisaa: 29
"O ye who believe, do not eat each other neighbor's property by way of vanity, except by way of commerce apply to the same love-love among you. And do not kill yourselves, Allah is Most Merciful to you. "
In the books of hadith, a term that is often identified or closely associated with corruption, among others are Ghulul and risywah.
a.       Ghulul: a very popular form of corruption
Ghulul is a term most widely used by the Prophet. in the traditions of the Hadith related to corruption or embezzlement of public property. Ghulul is isim masdar of ghalla said yes ghullu ghallan wa ghullun. That is, Akhdzu wa al-syai dassabu fi mata'hi "(taking something and hide it in his property). Prophet. asserts: "Ishaq ibn Isa hadith has been telling us, Isma'il ibn 'Ayyash hadith has been telling us, from Yahya ibn Sa'id, from Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, from Abi Humaid al-Sa'idi, he said that the Messenger of Allah. .. Berabda: "Gifts received pre officials / policy holder is ghulul (corruption)." (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad, no. Hadith 22 495)
b.      Risywah (Bribe-Bribery)
Another term that is similar to but not the same corruption is risywah / bribery. Decisions that favor certain parties and otherwise harm others. The person who called al-rasyi bribe and requesting or receiving bribes called Al-Murtasyi. "Messenger of Allah. He said: Allah curse for those who give bribes and taking bribes. "(Narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Majah).

2.      Corruption In Psychology Perspective
In view of the science of psychology, the cause of action is the interactions between factors that exist within individuals, and factors that are outside the self. Both of these factors interact with each other in the wider culture dish. Factor inside were things called as a personality trait. The personality traits would tend to make it easier for people in or not overcome the temptation for corruption. While external circumstances are beyond the conditions which enable people to desire doing corruption.
a.       Factors Within
One personality trait that causes people to commit corruption is easily tempted to achievement motivation is low (low achievement motivation). The concept of achievement motivation developed by David McClelland (1963). Described by McClelland achievement motivation as "virus" that drives a person to then improve his performance. People who have high achievement motivation always wanted to do things as well as possible, not so long. They put a high standard for the quality of work they produce. Their work is driven by a strong desire to produce quality work with good, not (for example) is driven by the desire to earn money with a large amount in a short time. They like with the challenge of completing a job is quite difficult. They are not satisfied with the work of the half-and-half or who do not find the need to excel himself just to do something with a low quality. Achievement motivation of people who have quite a lot to be rich, but wealth is not the main purpose of their lives. Wealth which they earn is just a side effect of the quality of work they themselves are indeed good.
People who do not like the high achievement motivations collect property deed by fraudulent means. The results which link the motivation to behave a-moral (eg stealing, cheating, etc.) shows that high achievement motivation motivate people to be other than the attitude of the low achievement motivation. Motivation of people who do not like the more high achievement motivation are a-moral actions when compared to low achievement motivation is motivation. (Djamaludin Ancok, 1986).
Many experts have argued, the king received tribute custom in ancient times get carried away until the government officials until now. Received tribute deemed not a thing wrong. Especially for those who have the power to regulate others. Subornation actually not much different from the tribute. In the absence of guilt in accepting this bribe will increasingly facilitate the activities of corruption.
b.      Factors Outside Themselves
Corruption, like other crimes, is an act carried out by a careful and rational calculation. Such is the opinion of some experts that the rational-analytical approach. According to John S. Carroll, an expert who uses rational-analytical approach, a crime is a realization of the decisions that have been taken. Corrupt behavior will be done when the acquisition value (gain) of corruption is greater than the value of loss (loss). Examples of such circumstances are Budi Adji corruption cases. Corruption money the state about 12 billion dollars just got sentenced to 12 years (20 years minus remission). This means that one year in prison to one billion dollars. What big income in jail.
c.       Cultural Factors
Least successful efforts to combat corruption will be greatly influenced by the culture inherent in a nation. At least three aspects of culture that can facilitate the commission of corruption, namely 'family culture', 'community orientation paternalism', and the culture of the people who are less brave forthright (assertive). Familial culture has many positive aspects for the life of a nation. But the negative side of the family culture will cause a hard person to act decisively. Indecision in implementing the rules will constitute barriers to the eradication of corruption.
While the culture of 'paternalism' this would be difficult to eradicate corruption. Every act of corruption by a leader or a highly respected in the community, then the action will be easily replicated by others with less status. These circumstances will get worse yet no openness to criticism from the public. People will see the silent, not daring to say what the violation was. Such a situation would lead to a national frustration. attempt to overcome this frustration can form the bandwagon against the rules. Cultural less bold blunt (non-assertive) will cause people to choose to remain silent rather than report the violations committed by others.
Dr. Hamdani Muluk Lecturer Political Psychology Faculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia argues corruption in cases psychology is the tendency to abuse authority because the individual already has a tendency to cheat. Besides the environment can have a strong tendency to corruption. There are three factors causes of corruption, namely:
1.      Damage to the macro environment (the State) in which the legal system, politics, surveillance, control and damaged paransi
2.      Corruptive influence of climate on the meso level
3.      Personality factors
Arrigo and Claussen (2003) for example, defines corruption as "the taking or accepting an advantage for yourself which is not legally valid because the individual has the authority and power". So obviously in this sense, all forms of embezzlement, theft of public funds to benefit themselves is an act of corruption.
3.      Analysis
The Fight Against Corruption Once we know how complex the background of the root causes of corruption, efforts to eliminate them is not an easy thing. However, the pessimistic attitude should not to make the effort to eradicate corruption is to be weak. Long-term effort to support the fight against corruption is an attempt to create a generation who have high achievement motivation. It is not easy to do because of the tendency of parenting on children predominantly applied in Indonesia, especially in the middle class, it seems more indulgent than foster the spirit of achievement.
Parenting techniques that can foster achievement motivation children need to be disseminated. Similarly, the conditions in the community that can foster achievement motivation needs to be developed. It's easy to say, but hard to do. Children in the educational process, often encountered examples of poor behavior in the community that can actually make an effort to be failing education achievement motivation. Another effort is to increase the possibility of arrest of the perpetrator was to impose severe punishment of perpetrators of corruption. In addition, a motion should be encouraged in the government, ranging from the state level to the village level, the so-called anti-corruption movement.
4.      Excample Case
Gayus Tambunan Case Symbolic of Indonesia’s Woes
AP, Armando Siahaan & Camelia Pasandaran (Jakarta Globe)
Jakarta. Gayus Tambunan’s get-out-of-jail scandal has touched a raw nerve like few others in a nation where corruption scandals are daily fare.  That’s because more than a decade after the collapse of former President Suharto’s 32-year dictatorship, many believe the greatest threat is not terrorism, a weak education system, poor infrastructure or even poverty.  “It’s graft,” said Agung Kumoroyekti, a 32-year-old computer salesman who wants the worst corruptors to be put to death.  “Otherwise nothing will change in this country,” he said. “If you’re rich or powerful, you’ll always be able to do what you want.”
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has made fighting graft a top priority.  But the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) itself has been beset by scandals of its own, some allegedly fabricated by tainted officials. On Tuesday, Yudhoyono acknowledged that Indonesians were “not satisfied” with the embarrassing law enforcement system, but said he could not intervene in individual cases, despite the rising complaints.  “Though I could not and would not intervene in the legal process ... as a head of state I should care about the concerns of our people,” he said.  The president did not say what steps he would take to improve the justice system.  “I have received text messages from people who are not satisfied with law enforcement,” Yudhoyono said.  He said the messages began when he was attending last week’s G-20 Summit in South Korea, shortly after Gayus was found to be bribing his way to a Bali vacation during his trial on corruption charges.
In some ways, Gayus, who is charged with pocketing at least $2.7 million from dozens of big companies while he was a mid-level tax collector, is a dream case for a frustrated public and corruption watchdogs. Each new allegation at his trial, now in its fifth month, has cast a wider shadow on top government officials, police and the judiciary in a country where most people earn less than $300 a month.
On Monday, Gayus broke into tears when he admitted in a hearing at the South Jakarta District Court that he was the wigged man captured by a Jakarta Globe photographer at an international tennis match in Bali on Nov. 5. “I simply wanted to see my family,” said Gayus, who was surrounded by relatives at the match. “I wanted a vacation.” National Police spokesman Maj. Gen. Iskandar Hasan said nine police guards have been arrested and face charges of accepting up to $40,000 from Gayus, who allegedly left the jail at least 60 times since his detention in April.  That has raised new questions about whether Gayus still has access to any of his alleged ill-gotten gains.  Pamuji, a 22-year-old street vendor, said the events of the last week have made her more pessimistic about the state of justice in Indonesia.  “If you’re poor and get caught pick-pocketing, you’ll be chased down by a mob and badly beaten,” she said. “I guess if you steal enough money, like him, you can do what you want!”  Emerson Yuntho, from Indonesian Corruption Watch, said that Gayus’s Bali jaunt exposed deep flaws in the legal system. “The Gayus case reveals two types of problems, taxation and a judicial mafia,” he said, referring to Gayus’s alleged illicit practices in the tax office and bribery of officials to avoid conviction on graft charges in 2009. “And none of those implicated in the cases have been brought to justice,” Emerson said.
The Gayus Bali getaway also demonstrates to a weary public that even in detention the wealthy evade real punishment, such as the case of Artalyta Suryani, who is serving time on graft charges but was found to be enjoying a luxury cell in a women’s prison earlier this year. So far none of the institutions in charge of Gayus’s detention ­— the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the Attorney General’s Office and the National Police — have accepted responsibility for his stroll on the beach. Instead they have pointed fingers at one another.  “The whole blame game is expected,” Emerson said. “At one point or another, all these institutions have been implicated in the Gayus scandal.”
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Al-Quranul Karim
Azyumardi Azra, “Agama dan Pemberantasan Korupsi” dalam Pramono.
Djamaludin, A. 2004. Psikologi Terapan. Darussalam: Yogyakarta.
Fakhrur Razi, Makalah Urgensi Hadis-Hadis Anti Korupsi dalam Upaya Pemberantasan Korupsi, Semarang

Jakarta Globe News.

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