Senin, 15 April 2013

English Middle Test_Leadership in Psychology and Islam Prespective_Berlian A. R_ 11410042

Leadership in Psychology and Islam Perspective
by : Berlian Ayu R.11410042

1.               Ayat Al-Qur’an about Leadership
 Al-Baqarah : 127

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواْ لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّؤُواْ مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ

"And those who followed would say: "If only We had one more chance, We would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us." Thus will Allah show them (The fruits of) their deeds as (nothing but) regrets. Nor will there be a way for them out of the Fire."

Al-Anbiya' : 73
وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِي

"We have made them as leaders who guide by Our command, and We revealed to them to continue to work on virtue, prayers, practice regular charity, and only to We're the guys they always serve."  

2.               Definition of leadership :
Psychology perspective
Leadership is a form of way or ability of a leader to lead of their employees, or it can also mean, a person's ability to influence others, so everyone else is expected to behave as he wants. Leadership is a process of influencing others, where leaders to involve subordinates with their own desires and abilities who are trying to achieve organizational goals.Leadership is a trait which is owned by an individual with all the ability to lead the group members. It is mean that being able to drive people and hang out with the group, so that people do not feel forced to do or didn’t do the desired action as a leader.

Al-Qur’an perspective
Leadership in Islam is the ability or the person’s way in implementing the tasks, organize lead and bring people to the truly way, and responsible for all beliefs to it by giving solutions and advice as well as a role model for many people that is based on Islamic valuesare Al-quran and hadist. Leadership in Islam not only as a matter of pride, but rather the mandate and responsibilities in the implementation, both are responsible for themselves and other people and most of all the coverage answer to god. Then a leader in Islam should be able to become good role models, both words and utterance as a form of sign realization in everyday life.
3.               Leadership and the theory
Leadership problems are a problem that has been around since human was born in a group, the group has appeared in a issues of leadership which is owned by every person of us. The psychology of a human being was has no leadership talent that needs to be geared up, with such efforts so the form of leadership would be seem. In minor human himself has become a leader with all his abilities and goals can change his future life that begins now.
Leadership Theory :
1.     According to the Nature of Leadership Theory
Basic: the success of a leader is determined by the properties, temperament or characteristics possessed by that person. These properties can be physical properties and psychologically :
a.     Ordway Tead
Nature of the leader consists of: physical-spiritual energy, the certainty the intent and direction of purpose, enthusiasm or attention, friendly hearted, full of a sense of friendship and sincerity, integrity or rounded individual, technical skills, teaching skills, loyalty.
b.     Chester I Barnard
Related to the nature of his personal leadership consisting of properties physical, skill, technology, perception, knowledge, memory and imagination. Personal nature have a subjective character, the excellence of a leaders in the faith (determination), persistence (persistence), durability (endurance) and courage (courage).
c.      Ralph Stodgill
The properties consist of a leader:
Capacity    : intelligence, alertness, verbal facility, originality and ability to assess
Achievement: degree, knowledge, success in sport
Responsibility: self-reliance, initiative, persistence, aggressiveness, believe self, the desire to excel
Participation: active, sociable, cooperative, easy adjust, humorous
Situation: mental level, status, skills, needs, interest of followers, objectives
2.     According Leadership Behavior Theory
Leader behaviors tend to two things, there are :
a.      Consideration, which tend to be in the interests of subordinate leaders. He type of leader who is friendly, supportive and defend, to consult, listen to subordinates, subordinates accept the proposal, thinking welfare of subordinates and treat subordinates with the same level himself.
b.     Initiating Structure, where leaders tend to be concerned with purpose organization. He is the type of leader who likes to critique the implementation work tasks are ugly, emphasizing the importance of deadlines implementation tasks to subordinates, always tell nothing subordinates to be done, always giving guidance on how perform a task, given specific standards on the job, ask subordinate to always obey and follow the established standards, and always supervise subordinates.
Roles of Leader 
Among the many roles of a leader it can be generally classified into three types:
1.     The situation Stuching
A leader must be able to provide information and explanations if the group is experiencing hard situation that may need illumination or explanation, it is able to provide solutions and description of a problem to the group.
2.     Controlling Behavior group
Leaders not only manage and direct, but also keep an eye on individuals attitude who commit or are not aligned in order to stick to the rules that have been agreed and to achieve those objectives.
3.     Spokesman Of The Group
A leader should be able to as a mouthpiece and understand and explain the needs, desires and goals of the group. To carry out the tasks that are needed both ways, then a leader must have five things:
a.      Capability
b.       Skills
c.      Courage
d.      Honesty
e.      Putting the public interest from private interests.
But besides that it has the function of a leader.
1.     Executive Function
A leader acting in achieving the set objectives and is responsible for the implementation of the group that have been agreed.
2.     As a designer.
The leader is making a plan of activities to be carried out by the group, all the things that do bullet designed to deal with.
3.     As Policy Makers.
Leader define group policies in order to achieve those objectives.
4.     As Representative Exit
Representative group leader is out and as a symbol of reflection properties of the group.
5.     Monitoring functions.
A leader should be sensitive and aware of the situation and the conditions that occur in groups and make improvements if it does not fit with the objectives to be achieved.

Type of leadership can be divided into several sections, although many of the experts are still different opinions that differentiate from a different perspective.
1.     Authoritarian Leadership
The leader of the task determines everything, all the activities of subordinates to be part of the task and instruction it. The leader of the group members are not involved in planning group activities. Everything goes with his will and hard to creatively members in making new things, in the leadership between superiors and subordinates are rare effective communication and even less likely once.
2.     Democratic Leadership
Give a chance to democratic leadership that led to participate and take part in the leadership process. Here there is cooperation between leaders and members, all group decisions are run on the basis of mutual agreement. Leader lay members as colleagues and not as opposed to people who are employed. Of course it is different with the authoritarian dictatorship where democracy is more likely to serve as a representative of the group.
3.     Liberal leadership
Passive forms of leadership, all the tasks you have in leadership and all the problems that happened he did not participate, he's just like being outside and release group members, he always gave them to his subordinates, never reprimand members fault, more likely to be nice. The term word arguably complement the existing structure. 
4.     Analysis
In fact, many leader can’nt follow the rules of leader. Leadership in psychology is closely related to the human soul, because since man is born already ingrained talent and willingness to lead and bring him and his group to change and evolve toward a better future, stay grinding on that talent, and in executing the way we need-good way and more precise in doing. leader is a role model for the lead. if the leader can not be fair in any case, the people will lose confidence in their leaders and then the nation will be the value of the nation's fragile justice. is not impossible that the history will come leaders who will destroy the nation. In Islam a leader is needed to bring the direction and better life developed than the previous one and to achieve prosperity and happiness of the world and the hereafter. all that has been done will be leaders held accountable in the hereafter. therefore let us cultivate high religious value in themselves, so that it will form a holy soul and benefit others. if leaders remain protected unjust then the nation will not thrive. The need for change in yourself and then the environment will also change for the better.

 5. Example of case, Batang: Because accused of stealing pieces of cotton crop residues belonging to a private company, the four actors are still one family arrested Police officers Rod, Navan, Central Java. The four actors named Manisih, Sri Suratmi, Juwono, and Rusnono been almost a month languishing at the Detention Rowobelang. Information obtained SCTV, Tuesday (24/11), the case began when four actors picked up the remains of a fallen cottonwood fruit harvested after a private company. As is known, the activity picked up the remnants of cotton has become a tradition that is often done by local residents. Kapok fruit also allegedly stolen amount is not much, only five kilograms or 1.5 pounds gross kapok.
If sold, one kilogram of cotton clean only priced at 4,000 rupias. This incident raises sympathy residents. Apart from the neighbors, the victim also received support from the local village officials requested the suspension of detention. But unfortunately, the request is ignored Police Trunk. Instead they were charged under Article 363 of the Code of Criminal Code of theft by weighting. They are punishable by a maximum of seven years in prison. This case is quite similar to what happened to a grandmother, a resident of Banyumas, Central Java. Nek Minah was found guilty by a district court for stealing cocoa Purwokerto owned PT Rumpun Sari Antan. Judge punishes Nek Minah one month with a trial period of three months without having to undergo confinement prisoners

6. Source