Selasa, 16 April 2013

Tugas UTS Bahasa Inggris - Rona Avissina

Name                : Rona Avissina
Nim                  : 11410131
Class                : Psychology B
  1. About Leadership

  1. Al-Qur’an Surat Al- Anaam :165

And it is He who has made you successors upon the earth and has raised some of you above others in degrees [of rank] that He may try you through what He has given you. Indeed, your Lord is swift in penalty; but indeed, He is Forgiving and Merciful.
  1. The meaning that ayat in psychology :
“And (remember) when his Lord tested Ibrahim with a few sentences (commands and prohibitions), then he fulfilled. Allah says: "Behold, I will make you a leader for all people". He said: "(And please, also) from my offspring". Allah says: "Promise Me (This) is not about abnormal people".”

There are several definitions of leadership that each other can be complementary.
1. According to Boring, Langeveld, and Weld:
Leadership is a relationship and individuals to form a group in order to be able to accomplish some purpose.
2. According to George R. Terry:
Leadership is the activity of influencing people to voluntarily willing toward common goals a reality.
3. According to H. Goidhamer and E. A. Shils
Leadership is the act of behavior that can influence the behavior of other people they lead.
4. According Ordeway Tead
Leadership is the activity of influencing people to work together toward the goals they want conformity.
5. According to John Petivner
Leadership is the art of coordinating and directing individuals or groups to achieve a desired goal.
Trait Theory
This theory started from the premise that the success of a leader is determined by the properties, temperament or traits possessed by the leader. The properties of a physical nature and psikoplagis. On the basis of the reasoning of the opinion that to be a successful leader is determined by personal ability, which meant the quality of a person with a different nature or temperament traits in it. Therefore the experts seek to elaborate further the quality of a leader is successful in carrying out the tasks of leadership and then the results are formulated into the common traits of a leader. The effort eventually spawned and grown into leadership theory or theory of leadership traits (Miftah Thoha, Organizational Behaviour, King Grafindo PT Persada, 1983, p 278)
Stogdill make classification a necessary trait in a person's head as follows:

v  Capacity: intelligence, alertness, verbal facility, originality, judgment)
v  Achievement: scholarship, knowledge, athletic achievement
v  Responsibility: dependability, initiative, persistence, aggressiveness, self-confidence, desire to excel
v  Participation: activity, sociability, cooperation, adaptability, humor
v  Status: socioeconomic position, popularity

Classification based on the way the leader or the approach taken by the leader, namely:
v  The Authoritarian Leadership
Authoritarian leaders define wisdom of the group, he himself makes the most of the planning, he himself fully determine the group's activities, dictate the pattern of activities among members and member relationships, making decisions on reward and punishment to members. Therefore the fate of each individual in the group is in the hands of the leader.
v  Democratic leadership
Democratic leaders try to show that the maximum involvement and participation of each member in the group activities and in setting group goals. He tried to divide the responsibilities of its members. He tried, encourage and strengthen the relationship between individuals throughout the group. He also tried to reduce tensions and conflicts in the group.
v  Liberal leadership
Passive leader, did not participate in group activities. He is outside the group, but the leader does not lead to release its members. Sir William Martin Conway held a leadership classification based on social roles are sung into three kinds, namely:
Crowd Compeller
He is the kind of leadership exercised by the person who gets the call duty to carry it out.
b. Crowd Representative
Leadership exercised temporary, ie during the period of his appointment to the post as head of the group. And that's the group that chose him as its leader.
c. Crowd Exponent
4.     This kind of leader at the right time and needed to move the masses so intense and pointed it at the intended target goal anyway. Because leaders can guess what that feels and that became their doubts, then can move up to the expectations he really wants.
That in surah Al Baqarah verse 124 suggests that leadership and example should be based on faith and devotion, knowledge and success in various examinations. Therefore, leadership can not be awarded by God to those who do wrong, the prevailing mayhem.
In this letter describes one difference that characterizes Islamic view of leadership to the views of others. Islam considers that leadership is not just a social contract, which gave birth to the promise of leaders led to serve in accordance with the agreement, as well as the observance of which led to the leader, but also have established harmonious relationship between the lead authorized by God. Janjin the form of leadership to run in accordance with the values ​​that mandated him.
5.      (I promised not to get the people who do wrong), shows that the acquisition of more leadership is grace, not human effort. That is why the verse states "I promised not to get the people who do wrong", in the sense that they are actively looking for a position, but rather the "promise" that a doer (subject). The promise is not met or get them.
Interpretation of Surah Al Baqarah verse 124 when connected with the Traits theory assumed that leadership depends on the character of its leaders. The properties owned by, among others, personality, physical excellence, and social skills.
 (I promised not to get the people who do wrong). In this verse clearly explained that the leadership in Islam is more to the grace not to human efforts. And maybe not an unjust God chose as a leader. So it is in line with theories that assume leadership traits depends on the character of the leader. Character must be good leaders that include social aspects of personality and Traffic. Personality is owned by a leader who is certainly not unjust as stated in Surah Al Baqarah ayat 124.

6.     Reference
Desmita,Dra.2011:Psikologi Perkembangan Pesrta Didik.PT.Remaja Rosdakarya.Bandung.

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