Selasa, 16 April 2013

Leadership_Firda Amalia_11410127

Firda Amalia (11410127)

Ø  Al-Qur’an
Q.S. Al Baqarah 124
And remember when his Lord tried Abraham with (His) commands, and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind. (Abraham) said: And of my offspring (will there be leaders) ? He said: My covenant includeth not wrong-doers.
Q.S. Al An’am ayat 165
He it is Who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth and hath exalted some of you in rank above others, that He may try you by (the test of) that which He hath given you. Lo! Thy Lord is swift in prosecution, and Lo! He verily is Forgiving, Merciful.

Q.S. An Naml ayat 62
Is not He (best) Who answereth the wronged one when he crieth unto Him and removeth the evil, and hath made you viceroys of the earth ? Is there any God beside Allah ? Little do they reflect!
Ø  Definition according to psychology
According to Fulan (2000, hal. 3) said that“leadership is a process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induce the group to pursue objectives shared by the leaders and his or her followers”.
In the other references mention that leadership is a process by wich a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse’s (2007), definition leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leaders are those who most influence the behavior and beliefs of the group. He was the one who initiated the action, give orders, make decisions, act as a role model, and being at the forefront of the group's activities.

Ø  Definition according to al-qur’an
Leadership in the concept of the Qur'an mentioned the term of the Imamah”, the leader in terms of imam”. Al-Qur'an linking leadership with guidance and giving instructions to the truth. A leader should not do injustice, and never do injustice in all levels of tyranny: the tyranny of the scientific and deeds, and injustice in the decision-making applications.
A leader must know the state of his people, to feel their pain directly. A leader should exceed his people in all things: science and practice, devotion and worship, courage and virtue, nature and behavior, and others.
Leaders in Islam has several characteristics, including:
1.        The intention is sincere
2.        Man
3.        Not ask job
4.        Adhering to the laws of God and consistent
5.        Decide the case with fair
6.        Always there when needed
7.        Advise people
8.        Do not accept gifts
9.        Looking for a good leader
10.    Gentle
11.    No doubt the people
12.    Open to accept ideas and criticism
Ø  Theory of Psychology about leadership.

Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill levels. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types:

1.      Great Man Theories
assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent, that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership.
2.      Trait Theories
Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.

3.      Contingency Theories

Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.

4.      Situational Theories

Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. For example, in a situation where the leader is the most knowledgeable and experienced member of a group, an authoritarian style might be most appropriate. In other instances where group members are skilled experts, a democratic style would be more effective.

5.      Behavioral Theories

Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.

6.      Participative Theories

Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.

7.      Management Theories

Management theories, also known as transactional theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. Learn more about theories of transactional leadership

8.      Relationship Theories

Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards.

Ø  The Components of Transformational Leadership
Bass also suggested that there were four different components of transformational leadership.
1.      Intellectual Stimulation
Transformational leaders not only challenge the status quo, they also encourage creativity among followers. The leader encourages followers to explore new ways of doing things and new opportunities to learn
2.      Individualized Consideration
Transformational leadership also involves offering support and encouragement to individual followers. In order to foster supportive relationships, transformational leaders keep lines of communication open so that followers feel free to share ideas and so that leaders can offer direct recognition of each followers unique contributions.
3.      Inspirational Motivation
Transformational leaders have a clear vision that they are able to articulate to followers. These leaders are also able to help followers experience the same passion and motivation to fulfill these goals.
4.      Idealized Influence
The transformational leader serves as a role model for followers. Because followers trust and respect the leader, they emulate this individual and internalize his or her ideals.
Ø  Type of leader
1.      Transactional leaders
Are task-oriented and focus on getting group members to achieve goals (jung and avolio 1999). These type of leaders reward accomplishing routine goals but do not especially inspire performance beyond the routine.
2.      Transformational leaders
These leaders encourage others to go beyond the routine by building a different type of organization that focuses on future possibilities (kanter 1983). Trans formational leaders use enthusiasm and optimism to inspire others.

Ø  Analyze and comment.
From the above description can be analyzed that the leadership in the Qur'an and psychology have been widely described. From the definition of leadership and characteristics to theories of leadership. In the Qur'an, the leader called the imam or khalifah, and in the Qur'an also described many of the traits of a leader, as men are preferred to be a leader than women, and many others .
Meanwhile, in the sense psychology, leaders are more likely to be those who most influence the behavior and beliefs of a group. Which generally carry two leaders, to direct and organize the activities of the group to achieve a goal or complete a task (Task Leadership) and maintain the social and emotional well-being of the members of the group (social leadership). Leadership in the view of psychology and the Qur'an, both have a very important role to the group. As his business as most people have an influence in the group.

Ø  Reality

Ir. Soekarno is first president in Indonesia. He is one example of a leader who has a major influence on the country of Indonesia. The hard work and all the efforts to make our country free from colonialism and for independence.

Joko widodo or Jokowi is known as the Governor of Jakarta. He is a leader who has a great influence on society jakarta. With his efforts he was trying to change for the better Jakarta. His efforts as a leader is to provide healthy jakarta cards, and trying to deal with flooding that always befall the city of Jakarta.

Stolley, Kathy S. 2005. The Basics Of Sociology. United States of amirica: Greenwood Press
Taylor, Shelley dkk. 2009. Psikologi Sosial. Jakarta: Kencana

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