W o m a n L E A D E R S H I P
By : Yunia Alfiati / 11410116
وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاء الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ (الانبياء : ٧٣)
“And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our Command, and We sent them inspiration to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers, and to practise regular charity; and they constantly served Us (and Us only).”
What’s the mean of this ayat???
(And We made them chiefs) leaders of goodness (who guide by Our command) who call people by Our command, (and We inspired in them the doing of good deeds) and it is said that these good deeds relate to inviting people to profess Allah's divine Oneness (and the right establishment of worship) the fulfilment of the prayers (and the giving of alms and they were worshippers of Us (alone)) and they were obedient to Us.
وَانطَلَقَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْهُمْ أَنِ امْشُوا وَاصْبِرُوا عَلَى آلِهَتِكُمْ إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ يُرَادُ - ( ص : ٦)
“And the leader among them go away (impatiently), (saying), "Walk ye away, and remain constant to your gods! For this is truly a thing designed (against you)!”
What’s the mean of this ayat???
(The chiefs among them) among the Quraysh: 'Utbah and Shaybah the sons of Rabi'ah, Ubayy Ibn Khalaf al-Jumahi and Abu Jahl Ibn Hisham (go about, exhorting) Abu Jahl said to them: (Go) to your deities (and be staunch to your gods) and persevere in the worship of your deities! (Lo! This) meaning Muhammad (pbuh) (is a thing designed) to perish; it is also said that this means: that which Muhammad is saying is designed to spread to all people of the earth
Definition of LEADER and LEADERSHIP
· Leader is Somebody whom people follow or somebody who guides or directs others or who are able to influence others toward some future direction, event, goal, or purpose.
· Leadership has been described as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task” or "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal".
There are three element of leadership:
o Leader (has authority to lead and delegates assignment / duty).
o Member (help the leader coincide the duty)
o Vission-mission-purpose (realisation based on culture or organisation philosopies)
Not all leaders lead in the same way or focus on the same goals. Some leaders take an instrumental approach, focusing on getting specific jobs done. While others take an expressive approach, concerning themselves with the emotional well-being of the group (Bales and Strodtbeck 1951).
Globally, leader must does two kind of activities :
· Task leadership >> directing and managing the group to achieve a goal or complate a task.
· Social leadership >> maintain social and emotional well-being members of the group.
Who is the leader?? What causes someone being the leader?? There are two different opinion about it. First, emphasizes the unique characteristic of the leader. An others, emphasizes on the power of the group to stressfull situation. Great people theory said that some people destined to lead because their unique personality and characteristic. To measuring this hipothesis, many of emphiric studies that compare the leader characterisyic and the member (Burn, 2004). Has founded some quality that differentiate leader and the member :
ü leaders tend to excel in the ability to help the group achieve goals.
ü leaders tend to have interpersonal skills that help the success of the group interaction
ü motivation, leader usually want to admittion and recognition.
ü leaders tend to be confident in his own ability and more optimistic about the success of the group.
Style of leadership – fred fiedler call his analysis of experiment by contingency model of leadership effectiveness. This model identified two style of leadership, correspond with the different between task leadership and social leadership. A leader that priority to finish the task group and less concerned with relationships between group members called by “ leader that oriented in task / task-oriented leader.” And leader that priority in relationship than achieving task called by “leader that oriented relation / relationship-oriented leader.”
Leader also differ in regard to how they motivate others and what they seek to achieve. Transactional leaders are task oriented and focus on getting group members to achieve goals (Jung and Avolio 1999). These type of leaders reward accomplishing routine goals but do not especially inspire performance beyond the routine. Another type of leader is transformational leader. These leader encourage others to go beyond the routine by building a different type of organization that focuses on future possibilities (Kanter 1983). This type use anthusiasm and optimism to inspire others. They encourage innovation and creativity. The conclution of Fiedler’s model is type efectivity of group will convert when there is a alternation / conversion in control. Based on fiedler’s theory, task-oriented leader less effective than relationship-oriented leader. However, after the leader has more experience and in control the situation, task-oriented leader will be more effective and the effectivity of relationship-oriented leader will be lower. The point is nothing leadership style that effective for all situation. may be, the most effective leader is a leader who can adaptation the leadership syle with the situation.
Analysis and comment
Is a man and a woman has different style of leadership? A man often supposed positive quality like adamant, arsethype and has ability to self developing. But when a woman is being a leader and she uses style like that, may be they will supposed negative and not feminin. Can be, a woman disbelieved that she can lead. Specificly when she leads a man, show their high competention, or dominan to use comunication style. But that statement seldom applied in this era. Its emansipation era, woman has right to lead like a man. Woman can avoid those negative evaluation by giving warmness, kindliness and attendtiveness to help others to achieve goals. No surprise if woman seldom to use arsethype manner and task-oriented leader. The new shakespears about transformational leadership has evoked an attractive question. Is a woman has more possibility to use transformational leadership than a man, participate as model, mentoring and supervising her member. Meta-analysis to 45 studies has identified both different gender (Eagly, Johannesen-Scmidt, & van Engenv 2003). First, woman has more value in transformational leadership. Second, woman has more value in using reward, like giving attendtiveness and giving distinction to the member when they have done a good job. Both leadership approachment give possibility to womaan that she can be competent leader who can accomplish the task and loved by the member.
The top scholar on gender and leadership, Dr. Alice Eagly, recently stated that her studies show that women are more likely than men to possess the leadership qualities that are associated with success. That is, women are more transformational than men - they care more about developing their followers, they listen to them and stimulate them to think "outside the box," they are more inspirational, and they are more ethical. Dr. Bernard Bass, who developed the current theory of transformational leadership, predicts that in the future women leaders will dominate simply because they are better suited to 21st century leadership/management than are men.
THE FACT about WOMAN LEADERSHIP
Hj. Indriyati Adawiyah Muchson S.H, M.Pd is a great woman. She affiliates many organizations in her city, Mojokerto. One of her experience is being a headmastress in Senior High School of Al-Multazam (Mojokerto) since 2006 to 2010. She has done a good job to managing that school. Not only her, who get a good reputation. But she proves that her students can advance the school’s name. Her school has gotten many reward because her effort. Althought she has many preoccupation, she doesn’t forget her obligation to take care and educate her childreen. Good regulation to do all activities. Her children grow well by her own hand and her husband. It means that gender isn’t discouragement for every person’s right to be a leader. Now is emansipation era. So every one has human right to lead. Nothing excepted for a woman.
Stolley, Kathy S.. 2005. The Basics of Sociology. United States of America : Greenwood presss
Taylor, Shelley E. Peplau, Letitia A. and Sears, David O. 2009. Psikologi Sosial edisi kedua Belas. Jakarta : Kencana